Thailand current water situation

May 23, 2022
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

Thailand Current Water Situation

[video width="3840" height="2160" mp4="http://www.interriskthai.co.th/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/pexels-rostislav-uzunov-7385122.mp4" loop="true" autoplay="true" preload="auto"][/video]

Summary

  • The rainy season is expected to arrive in the mid of May.
  • The rainfall amount from the beginning of this year is close to last year except in the south.
  • The effect from La Nina mitigated the drought situation and will cause higher precipitation in the first half of the rainy season. However, the precipitation will decrease after June as the turnover from La Nina to El Nino.
  • The storage level in all major dams of the Chao Phraya Basin are in a decreasing trend due to the drought season. However, the storage levels are mostly relatively higher than last year.
  • There are no concerning topics in the main rivers of the Chao Phraya Basin. The river levels are mostly in low level.

Precipitation

The precipitation until the beginning of May comparing to last year is slightly lower, in the upper country and substantially higher in the south. The accumulated rainfall is in the range of 200-1200 mm in the southern area which is the effect from La Nina. If comparing to the average rainfall value, this year’s accumulated rainfall is significantly higher, especially in the northern and southern regions.

Forecast

According to the monthly weather forecast from the Thai Meteorological Department, the weather will be turbulent in the upper country in the first half of the month by the weather will be intermittently stuffy and rainy in some areas. Afterwards, the quantity and dispersion of rainfall will increase to be approximately 40-60 percent of the area, especially in the eastern region. For southern region, rain will increase and the wave height will be 2-3 meters in the west side and 1 meter in The Gulf of Thailand. These are the consequence of the transition from the southeast monsoon that has covered the country to the southwest monsoon that will cover the southern Thailand. In addition, there will be monsoon trough that will periodically lay along the northern region. This year rainy season is expected to arrive in the middle of May. The government has revealed the protection measures for the coming rainy season as follows:

  1. Speculate the flood risk areas and low rainfall areas to establish the countermeasures.
  2. Management of the lowland areas to prepare for any flood situations and also include reserving of water before the end of rainy season.
  3. Revise the management plan of the large-medium dams.
  4. Repair and restore the water drainage systems and telemetering stations.
  5. Clear obstacles and obstructions in the water drainage way.
  6. Dredge canals and remove weeds.
  7. Prepare machines, equipment, staff, protection and prevention plans.
  8. Optimize the water allocation to be consistent with the water budget.
  9. Inspect flood walls/dikes to ensure the condition.
  10. Indicate evacuation areas and conduct the response plan drill (within May).
  11. Establish district government office prior to the situations.
  12. Establish communication with public (before and along the rainy season).
  13. Monitor, assess and manipulate the measures to suit the situations.
For this year precipitation forecast, the weather will be fluctuated as the first half of the year will be influenced by La Nina which has been in effect since September last year, and will later turn over to El Nino in the second half of the year (August till December), according to the director of Hydro-Informatics Institute (HII). This means that this year rainfall will be intermittent during March and April due to tropical storms and the rain will be higher in May and will keep decreasing from June to the rest of the year.

Dam Storage Level (Sirikit Dam, Bhumibol Dam)

The storage level of Sirikit Dam until May 8th is almost the same level as the last two years although the storage level at the beginning of the year is lower. For Bhumibol Dam, the storage level is relatively higher than the two previous years.

Dam Storage Level (Pasak Dam, Kwaenoi Dam)

The storage levels of both Kwaenoi Dam and Pasak Dam are slightly higher than the two previous years although the water budgets are substantially higher.

The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow

The river levels are low in the Ping, Wang, Yom and Nan. For example, the river level is up to 9 meters lower than the river bank at Nakhonsawan province. The river level of the Chao Phraya River above the Chao Phraya Dam is also significantly lower than the bank. Thus, there is no critical situations regarding flood event.

Water Situation in the Chao Phraya River

8th May 2022

Note: – Numbers in bracket indicate the flow rate of water in m3/sec.

⠀⠀⠀⠀ – Numbers with underline indicate higher (+) or lower (-) of water level than the river bank in meters.

⠀⠀⠀⠀ – Water levels U/S and D/S are in meters.

The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow

               The situation in the Lower Chao Phraya is analogous to the Upper Chao Phraya. The river level is clearly lower than the river bank. There is no notable situation

Water Situation in the Chao Phraya River

8th May 2022

Note: – Numbers in black indicate the flow rate of water in m3/sec. ⠀⠀⠀⠀ – Numbers in bracket the flow rate of water in m3/day. ⠀⠀⠀⠀ – Numbers with underline indicate higher (+) or lower (-) of water level than the river bank in meters.
References
http://www.arcims.tmd.go.th/dailydata/yearRain.php
https://www.thaipost.net/general-news/132557/
https://www.tmd.go.th/monthly_forecast.php
https://www.tnnthailand.com/news/earth/112726/
https://www.matichon.co.th/local/quality-life/news
https://www.thaiwater.net/water/dam/large
http://water.rid.go.th/flood/plan_new/chaophaya/Chao_up.php?cal2=08052022
http://water.rid.go.th/flood/plan_new/chaophaya/Chao_low.php?cal2=08052022
https://www.pexels.com/photo/body-of-water-under-blue-and-white-skies-1533720
https://www.pexels.com/video/sea-sunset-water-blue-7385122/
https://www.pexels.com/photo/close-up-photo-of-body-of-water-3560168/
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc.
International Section, Corporate Planning Department
TEL.03-5296-8920
http://www.irric.co.jp
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
InterRisk Asia (Thailand) is a MS&AD Insurance Group company which was established in Thailand to provide risk management services, such as fire safety, flood risk management, electrical safety and risk consulting services, such as automotive risk assessment, occupational safety and burglary risk survey to our clients in Thailand. For inquiry, please feel free to contact us.
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2011年タイ大洪水を振り返って(その2) ~タイにおける気候変動と、今後への備え~

March 11, 2022
Makoto Hattori

2011 年タイ大洪水を振り返って(その2)

 ~タイにおける気候変動と、今後への備え~

本稿は三井住友海上タイ支店と共著でバンコク日本人商工会議所・所報 (No.716202112月号)に掲載した記事を基に再構成しています。

1.はじめに

前号(その1)では2011年の大洪水の被害状況等について概説するとともに、お客さまの生々しい体験談をご寄稿いただいた。また、研究結果をもとに、タイにおける気候変動の影響で将来的に洪水が高まる可能性についてご案内した。 ついては本号では、気候変動リスクを具体的に概観し、またリスクマネジメントの観点から、在タイの日系企業が一つの事業体としてどの程度の事前対策を取るべきかを、財務的な観点も踏まえてご説明させていただく。

2.気候変動に関する最近のトピックス

最近は気候変動に関する話題に事欠かない。まずは、メディアに大きく取り上げられた、日本人には明るい話題から。[1]

今年のノーベル物理学賞を米プリンストン大学の眞鍋 淑郎(まなべ しゅくろう)上席研究員が受賞、その研究内容が気候変動ということで大きな話題になった。ノーベル物理学賞は多くが天文物理学、素粒子物理学分野から選ばれるが、気象物理学領域からは初めての受賞である。[1]

気候変動が今や待ったなしの世界的な課題であることへのメッセージとなっている。 また、以下の通り、世界的な枠組みで気候変動に関する論議が進んでいる

気候変動に関する政府間パネル(IPCC)が、8月に7年ぶりの第6次報告書を公表した。この中で、温暖化の原因について「人間の影響が大気、海洋及び陸域を温暖化させてきたことには疑う余地がない。[2]と明言した点で大きく注目された。温暖化の原因については異論・反論も存在している中で、IPCCもこれまでは人間の影響について「支配的な原因だった可能性が極めて高い」といった表現にとどめていたが、今回はより踏み込んだ表現となった。

10月31日に開幕された第26回国連気候変動枠組条約締約国会議(COP26)に先立ち、国際エネルギー機関(IEA)は2021年の世界エネルギー見通しに関する報告書 [3]を公表した。その中でIEAは各国の温暖化対策が不十分であり、このままでは1.5シナリオ[4]の達成は困難であるとし、各国に一層の取組みを促した。

既に多くの国・企業が気候変動抑制に取り組んでいるが、決して楽観視できる状況にはなく、パリ協定の目標達成が早速危ぶまれている。その結果、異常気象(タイでは洪水や干ばつ)が増加の一途をたどる未来も十分に想定される。

3.タイで高まる気候変動リスク

IPCCの報告書中、CO2 排出削減などの温暖化対策を今以上に施さなかった場合の(最も温暖化が進む)「RCP8.5」シナリオでは、21世紀後半に2.6 ~ 4.8℃の気温上昇が予測されている(いわゆる4℃シナリオ)。仮にこの最悪シナリオが実現した場合、きわめて破滅的な自然災害による被害が生じるとしている。

4℃シナリオにおける21世紀後半の未来予想図[5]

         ①スーパー台風の頻度、最低気圧、雨量が大幅に増加する

         ②海水面が84m上昇する

         ③世界の多くの地域で水需給がひっ迫する など

最悪のシナリオは21世紀末までの長期に及ぶ予測であるが、実際に世界中で異常気象が報告されており、タイにおいても深刻な洪水・干ばつなどが発生している。次ページの表は気象庁が発表している異常気象について、タイに関する情報を抜粋したものである。タイでは2011年~2020年の10年で7つの異常気象が報告されている。なお、最近の例として、2019から20年にかけてタイで発生した干ばつは過去40年間で最も深刻であったと言われている。[6] タイでは主な気候変動リスクとして洪水にフォーカスされがちであるが、干ばつも経済活動に深刻な影響を与える。農作物の不作・高騰による製糖業などの食品メーカーなどの生産への影響や、冷却用水など大量の水を使用する工場の稼働率低下、また水力発電の出力低下など経済への影響は大きい。またバンコクにおける塩害被害や、大気汚染悪化も広い意味で気候変動リスクと言える。2021年は多雨な年となった。これらが周期的に発生する事象かどうかの評価は難しいが、タイにおける気候変動リスクは、間違いなくより身に迫るものとなっている。

タイで近年発生した異常気象(気象庁 HP より抜粋)

4.気候変動リスクへの備え

以上により、気候変動リスクの高まり(タイにおいてはより深刻な洪水や干ばつ)は理解できるものの、果たしてどの程度の事前対策を取っておくべきか、必ずしも明確な答えがあるわけはない。ついては、大方の企業にも一般的に当てはまるであろう、気候変動リスク(特に洪水)に対処するリスクマネジメントの手順を以下の3つの観点で解説する。

(1) 将来に向けて(特に中長期的に)気候変動リスクがどの程度高まっていくのか具体的なイメージを持っておく。

(2) 気候変動リスクは、自動車事故や火災事故とは異なり、突然発現するものではなく、ある程度予見可能であることも念頭に置く。

(3) やみくもに対策をとるのはコスト負担の観点でも非効率であり、各企業が不慮の損害に対してどの程度まで財務負担力があるかを認識しておく。

(1) 将来に向けた気候変動のイメージ 気候変動リスクを踏まえた、自社拠点の洪水リスク(想定される浸水深などとそれに基づく操業への影響)を想定する。MS & AD インターリスク総研(株)では、気候変動リスク分析ベンチャーの米国Jupitar Intelligence 社と提携して、複数の温暖化シナリオに基づく自然災害のリスク定量評価(洪水であれば浸水深)を提供しているが、こうした情報を活用することで、より具体的な取組みに繋げることができる。

自然災害のリスク定量評価のイメージ

 

再現期間[7] 図1  自然災害のリスク定量評価イメージ(4℃シナリオにおける某拠点の浸水深の経年変化)

図2 自然災害のリスク定量評価イメージ (複数拠点での、再現期間200年の河川洪水による想定被害額の変化)

(2) 気候変動リスクへの予見可能性を踏まえた対応 自動車事故や火災事故はいつ発生するかほぼ予見ができないが、洪水による損害発生は、季節性や、原因となる事象が具体的な損害に発展するまでに、相応の時間がある。損害が発生するまでに、損害発生を防止すること、防止できないにしても損害の軽減が図れることが多い。そのために準備できることを検討しておくことが望ましい。それらの対応は、 ①ソフト面(予めどのような手順を定めておくか) ②ハード面(損害の発生が予見された際にどのような対応をとるか)に分けることができる。 ①ソフト面の対策 チャオプラヤー川水系における洪水は長い時間をかけて浸水が進行し、また水が引くのにも長い時間がかかる。そのため拠点に水が到達するまで時間的余裕があり、近隣河川・水路の水位上昇等、複数の兆候が見られることから、普段よりアクションプラン等を策定しておくことで、有効な対応は十分に可能である。

洪水ソフト面の対策事例

  • 2011 年の大洪水の経験をもとに、河川の水位等から敷地までの洪水到達時間を推定
  • 洪水到達時間から逆算したアクションプランの策定
  • 主要な重量設備を分解のうえ、敷地内の高所に保管(上階、ラックなど)※分解、移設訓練実施
  • 原材料・仕掛品・完成品を安全な他の拠点に移動 ※リソース(輸送など)の事前確保
②ハード面の対策 洪水の被害軽減策は、a. 敷地内への水の浸入を防ぐ、b. 水が浸入した場合の水濡れ被害を可能な限り減らす、の2 点である。

a.敷地内への水の浸入を防ぐ

洪水被害の有効な軽減策は敷地内への水の浸入を防ぐことである。従って防水壁は最も効果的なハード対策である。2011 年の大洪水後、アユタヤの主要な工業団地は防水壁で敷地全域を防護している。

b.浸水した場合の水濡れ被害を可能な限り減らす

上記のような工業団地に入居してない企業が自前で敷地を囲う防水壁を設置するのは費用の面でハードルが高いため、敷地内が浸水する前提で可能な限り被害を軽減することを目指す企業もある。敷地内が浸水したとしても、操業に必要な設備やユーティリティ設備が被害を受けなければ、資産の損害は限定的となり、また事業復旧までの期間を短縮できる。

洪水ハード面の対策事例

  • 重要な製造設備 ・ 検査工程 ・ユーティリティ設備を上階など高い位置に移設
  • 資産を緊急避難させるための保管用ラック ( 想定浸水深よりも高いもの ) の導入
  • 1 階の資産を 2 階に短時間で移すためのクレーンの設置
  • 防水壁の設置 ( 重要設備単位、 プロセス単位、 建物単位、 敷地単位 ) など
(3) 財務負担力の認識 自動車の事故、工場の爆発などの例では、発生する損害の大部分を損害保険から回収することが一般的である。自動車保険での第三者への賠償、工場における事故は大規模な損失につながるため、各企業への財務への影響が非常に大きい。したがって保険への加入は、言い換えれば、事業を継続するために財務状態を維持することが目的となる。 説明のために想定企業(A社)のケースを考える。なおA社の固定費は売上高の増に関わらず一定と仮定する。

A社の損益(単位:百万バーツ)

端的に言って、この想定企業(A社)における「財務負担力」はどの程度と考えられるだろうか。損害が発生し、損害額をそのまま財務上の損失として認識するならば、1億バーツ以上の損害が発生すると、当該企業は赤字に転落することになる。逆に言うと、想定する損害額が1億バーツを大きく下回り、利益計画達成にむけて軽微な影響であれば、「何もしない」という選択肢もある。(これをリスクマネジメントの考えでは「リスクの保有(許容)」という。) 洪水では固定資産の損害に加えて、事業中断による売上・利益への影響という2次的な損害も発生する。事業中断期間が長くなれば、売上高・営業利益は減少する。損益分岐点を下回り赤字になった際に、現預金の取崩しや短期借入等を行うと、経営指標(自己資本比率、ROE、流動比率など)が悪化し、連結親会社の財務諸表へも影響する。十分な被害軽減策を実施できない場合や、費用の問題等で必要な対策を導入できない場合には、保険または代替手段での「リスクの転嫁」が必要になる。

5.まとめ

「2011 年タイ大洪水を振り返って」として、前号、本号の2回にわたり、2011年の大洪水の概要、当時のお客さまの体験談や今後実施すべき対策等について、気候変動の観点も取り入れながら解説した。タイでは2019から20年にかけて深刻な干ばつが発生した一方で、2021年には多雨により洪水が発生するなど、以前よりも気候変動を身に迫るものとして感じている方も多いのではないか。将来顕在化するリスクの大きさが、従来の常識では想定しづらいという昨今の状況下で、いかに実効性のあるリスク管理態勢を構築していくか、多くの経営者の皆様が頭を悩まされていることと思う。しかしながら基本的な考え方はシンプルで、本稿の「4.気候変動リスクへの備え」でご案内した3つの観点が起点となる。合理的かつ客観的に自社の状況を評価し、自社がどの程度のリスクを保有(許容)できるか認識した上で対策を講じることに尽きる。幸いにして2011年の大洪水以降、同規模の洪水は現時点において発生していないが、これは今後も発生しないということを保証するものではない。むしろ気候変動リスクが高まる中で、洪水頻度・強度が高まる可能性も想定される。2011年の大洪水の教訓を形骸化させずに今後に活かし、大洪水が再度発生した場合にも被害を極小化して、持続的な事業継続・成長を実現して行くことが、自社を含めた日系企業のタイにおける存在感を向上させ、タイ経済やひいては日本経済にも貢献するものと考える。
[1] https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20211005/k10013292011000.
[2] Climate Change 2021 – The Physical Science Basis – Working Group I contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
[3] World Energy Outlook 2021(IAEA)
[4] パリ協定での努力目標。「世界的な平均気温上昇を産業革命以前に比べて2℃より十分低く保つとともに、1.5℃に抑える努力を追求する」
[5] IPCC AR5 & IPCC:変化する気候下での海洋・雪氷圏に関するIPCC特別報告書
[6] Thailand tackles worst drought in 40 years(国連機関OCHA /relief web)
[7] 一定の強度をもった自然現象(台風・豪雨・豪雪・地震など)が再び発生するまでの期間(年数)のこと。 例えば「再現期間100年の洪水」とは、100年に一度起きる規模の洪水のことである。

2011年タイ大洪水を振り返って(その1)

March 11, 2022
Makoto Hattori

2011年タイ大洪水を振り返って(その1)

本稿は三井住友海上タイ支店と共著でバンコク日本人商工会議所・所報 (No.715202111月号)に掲載した記事を基に再構成しています。

12011 年タイ大洪水の概況

タイ経済に深刻な影響をもたらし、またタイ進出日系企業へも大きな打撃を与えた2011年のタイ洪水(以降、「大洪水」)から10 年が経過した。大洪水はタイ日本人社会・経済に大きな衝撃を与えた。一方、日本人駐在員には定期異動もあり、総じて日本人の間では大洪水による甚大な苦難の記憶が風化してきているように思われる。そこで本稿では大洪水から10 年が経過したのを機に、大洪水がいかに激しい災害であったかをあらためて振り返り、タイ自然災害の特徴を概観する。 (1) 大洪水の概況 大洪水の被害はタイの広範囲にわたった。全77 県のうち65 県が被災し、死者815 名、約950 万人が被害を受けたとされる。2011 年の5 月と8 月は歴史的に見ても極めて雨量が多い月であったほか、6 月と7 月には台風が襲来するなど(台風4 号:HAIMA、台風8 号:NOCK-TEN)、年間を通じて非常に多雨な年(例年の1.4 倍)であった。 タイでは7月には台風8 号の大雨により、北部地域では既に洪水が発生していたが、8 月以降の多雨によりこれが徐々に拡大・南下し、10 月上旬には中部アユタヤ県のサハラタナナコン工業団地が冠水、その後10 月下旬までにロジャナ工業団地、ハイテク工業団地、バンパイン工業団地ほか主要7工業団地が浸水・冠水した。冠水被害を受けた工場は838 拠点、うち日系企業は450拠点におよんだ。ジェトロ・バンコク事務所が2012 年2 月に実施したアンケート調査によると、回答企業133 社(製造業81 社、非製造業48 社、その他[1]4 社)のうち、71%は直接的または間接的に大洪水の被害を受けている。[2] 大洪水が経済活動にもたらした影響は甚大で、2011 年国内総生産(GDP)成長率は第3四半期までプラスであったにもかかわらず、第4 四半期には洪水の影響でマイナス成長となり、年間成長率は1% と前年度7.8% から大幅に悪化した(非農業分野はマイナス10%に達した[3])。最終的には大洪水による経済損失は1.43 兆バーツに達したと言われる。[4] チャオプラヤー川水系では過去にも多くの洪水が発生しているが、大洪水は同国の歴史上もっとも経済被害の大きい洪水となった。自然現象としての降雨のほか、ダムの貯水量調整も洪水発生の大きな要素と考えられている。

チャオプラヤー川水系における主な洪水[5]

(2) タイの地形と洪水の特徴 多くが半日から数日程度で収まる日本の洪水とは異なり、チャオプラヤー川水系の洪水は数か月かけて南下する。大きな水の塊がじわじわと侵食するイメージとなる。チャオプラヤー川流域は、世界的に見ても極めて稀な低勾配の地勢であり、そのため川の流れが極めて緩やかである。図1はチャオプラヤー川と日本の利根川、信濃川の河床勾配を比較したものであるが、チャオプラヤー川河口付近と、そこから約100km 上流に位置するアユタヤの標高は2 ~ 3m 程度しかない。大洪水の際も流速はわずか1 日数キロ、下流に近い場所では1 キロ未満の日もあったと言われている。このような地形は、バンコクからアユタヤに向かう鉄道に乗ると簡単に見て取れる。

図1:チャオプラヤー川、利根川、信濃川の河床勾配[6]

2.大洪水で罹災された工場の様子

前書きで大洪水の記憶が風化しているのではないかと述べた。ここでは大洪水を当時実際に経験され、現在はタイに駐在されている方から当時の振り返りについてお話しを伺ったので紹介する。

         ①工場全体が浸水した時の様子 当時は日本の本社スタッフであり、工場浸水時の状況を生には体験していないが、アユタヤ工場が浸水する前に、高電圧電源を遮断する手順について工場担当者から電話照会を受けた。工場の電源遮断は通常5年に一度しか実施しないため、工場担当者には初めての経験であり、浸水が日々迫るなか、焦り、緊迫した様子が伝わってきた。後日、工場は約2m浸水、ボートで工場の中に入り工場の天井付近をボートで進んでいくのをビデオで見て、非常に不思議な気持ちになった。

         ②工場内部の罹災状況、当時の心境 水が引いた約2週間後の12月に現地工場へ入った。1階設備は泥水に浸り、まずは従業員や協力会社による掃除作業が始まった。従業員は自分の家も被災して大変な状況であるにも関わらず、工場の早期復旧に尽力してくれ、使命感に涙が出る思いだった。一度浸水した設備が正常稼働するか、判断は容易ではなく、設備図面自体も浸水し見ることができず、設備復旧の重要な手掛かりが無く愕然とした。一方顧客への製品供給が滞ることも許されないため、早期に設備復旧計画を立てるため、タイで越年することとした。

         ③復旧作業で大変だった事 現場調査し図面を再作成したり、機器の納期を確認したり膨大な作業があったが、最も緊迫した状況は輸入手続きだった。非常に多くの書類を用意する必要があり、ホテルで夜中にパソコンを打つ日々が続いた。疲れがピークに達していた時はキーボードを打ちながらそのまま寝ていた日もあった。パソコンを打ちながら寝てしまったのは後にも先にもあの時だけだった。

寄港地が急遽変更になったり、必ずしも通関は思うようにいかず、スケジュールに合わせるためには臨機応変に対処する必要があった。皆が一日も早く復旧させたいというベクトルが一致していたので、バックアップ策も考え、常に先回りして確認するなど、良いチームワークで苦難を乗り越えた。

          ④復旧体制(本社指示、他拠点からの応援など) 工場の復旧には多くの応援が必要で、現場調査、機器整備、工事、検収ごとに日本の本社へ具体的な人材の応援を依頼したが、時には難色を示され、親しい先輩に泣きついて無理を言ったこともあった。「あの時の君は電話越しでもテンションが違って、アドレナリンが出まくっていて圧倒された」と言われた。当時はまだ多数の出張者を受け入れることができたが、このコロナ禍ではそれもできないため、現地だけの対応となることを考えると恐ろしい。

保険への加入は、逸失利益の補償のほか、多くの応援者を呼ぶうえでも備えとなった。社内購買では価格妥当性検証が義務付けされているが、保険金でバックアップできる安心感があり、顧客への供給責任、復旧最優先の精神で対応できた。

多くの従業員等の尽力で、計画より若干前倒しで、一部工程を3月に再開することが出来た。 最初の製品が出てきたときは仲間と手を取り合い涙が出た。

貴重な体験談を寄稿いただきましたご厚意に、この場をお借りし感謝申し上げたい。

3.大洪水の被害への保険金お支払い対応

前述の体験談で保険対応について言及いただいたが、当時の三井住友海上をはじめとする損害保険会社における保険金のお支払対応状況についても触れさせていただきたい。 2011 年10 月初旬に「バンコク郊外北部のサハラタナナコン工業団地が浸水」との一報を受けた直後、三井住友海上では洪水対策室を設置、お客さまからの罹災のご連絡に備えた。その時点では洪水の全容は明らかではなかったが、広範囲に影響が拡大する極めて異常な洪水であるとの認識を強めていた。間もなく、工業団地内にあるお客さまの工場で2m を超える泥水に浸る事態となったが、実際の調査にはなかなか着手できず、調査要員の出張支援、損害復旧会社の手配など資源確保を優先した。 洪水はさらに容赦なく南下しながら工業団地を飲み込んでいく。「次のエリアで止まるだろう、いや止まらない。でも次のエリアで止まるだろう、いや、止まってくれ」と、異様な緊張感の中でお客さまと日々認識共有させていただいた。本格的な調査は10 月下旬にようやく開始できた。 罹災が判明していないお客さまも含めて、罹災時の初動対応等をまとめた説明文書をご案内した。事故対応に関する説明会も開催した。11 月に入り罹災されたお客さまからの具体的な保険金のご請求をいただいたが、浸水のため書類がどうしても限られ、個々の判断に時間を要しご迷惑をお掛けしたケースも発生した。 一般に、日本における地震や台風等の災害では、多くの場合「災害の発生」から「被害の確定」まで短期間であり速やかに調査できるが、大洪水では約1 か月にわたって被害が徐々に拡大、その間調査を開始できない状況でお客さまからのご照会やご要望に対して対応する必要があった。書類がすべて整わずとも、当面の2011 年12 月決算期に合わせて、損害調査開始から約2 か月の間、一部前払いを含め、可能な限り早期の保険金お支払い実現に総力挙げて対応した。 後日発表された世界銀行の推計によると、タイ全体の被害総額は約3 兆5000 億円。うち工業団地の被害額は約1 兆7000 億円。日系損害保険会社がお支払いした保険金は約9000 億円。自然災害による経済損失額の大きさでは、当時では史上4 番目の規模となる大災害であった。

4.タイにおける気象変動の概況

幸いなことに大洪水以降、同規模の洪水は今のところ発生していない。しかしながら、前述の通りチャオプラヤー川水系ではこれまで幾度なく洪水が発生してきたという歴史的事実があり、今後も発生する可能性が高いと考え対策を講じておく必要がある。また、洪水のみならず、異常気象など温暖化の影響による自然災害を広く考慮することが重要となる。 2021 年8 月、気候変動に関する政府間パネル(IPCC)による7 年ぶりの第6 次報告書が発表された。この中で特に注目すべきポイントの一つは、人間の活動が温暖化に与える影響について「疑う余地がない」と初めて断定したことである。温暖化については人間の活動以外にも要因があるとする説もあり、IPCC もこれまでの報告書では「人間活動が温暖化に影響を与えている可能性が非常に高い」という言い回しで断言は避けていた事を考えると大きく踏み込む内容となった。世界規模での更なる温暖化対策の進展が期待される。 では実際に、タイにおいて洪水リスクは高まっているのか。また、今後さらに高まっていくのか。東京大学・芝浦工業大学とMS&AD インターリスク総研・MS&AD インシュアランス グループ ホールディングスとの共同研究「グローバルな洪水リスク情報の効果的な活用方法に関する研究」では、2000 ~ 2013 年の時点で洪水の発生確率はこれまでの人為的な地球温暖化の効果がない場合と比較して、2 倍以上となっている可能性を指摘している(図2参照)。[7] また同研究チームが作成した、「気候変動による洪水頻度変化予測マップ」[8] によると、今後、何らかの温暖化対策を講じなかった場合[9]、チャオプラヤー川下流域では20 世紀後半(1971 ~ 2000 年)には100 年に1 度の確率で生じていた洪水が、21 世紀後半(2071 ~2100 年)には約16 年で1 度の確率で発生すると推定されている。温暖化の加速により発生頻度が大幅に高まる結果になっている。

図2:2010-2013年の期間に、地球温暖化によって洪水の生じやすさが増加した流域(凡例の0以上)と減少した流域 (凡例の0未満)の分布 Hirabayashi et al., 2021b

5.まとめ

タイに進出する日系企業数は2011 年の洪水以降も増え続けており、バンコク日本人商工会議所における2020 年の会員数は2011 年当時から約33% 増の1763 社となっている。また進出企業はタイ国内におけるサプライチェーン強化の観点から原材料・部品などの現地調達率を引き上げる流れもある9。資産はより集積し、サプライチェーンの脆弱性は高まっていることから、2011 年と同等以上の洪水が発生した場合には、当時と比べてより大きな被害、特にサプライチェーン寸断による間接損害が拡大する可能性は否めない。 また、バンコク周辺ではかつて洪水の際の遊水地や海への放水路として活用されていた土地においても急速な開発(工業化・宅地化)が進んだことで洪水対策機能が低下している可能性があり、そうした場所には資産が集積するため、洪水リスクはさらに高まる。大洪水から10 年が経過し、多くの企業の洪水に対する意識は次第に低くなっているように感じられる。万全の洪水対策を講じ、定期的に教育訓練を行っている企業もあるが、多くの企業は大洪水直後に実施していた取組みが形骸化しているのではないか。 大洪水以降、同規模の洪水は今のところ再発していないが、前述の通り大洪水に匹敵する規模の洪水は今後も発生する可能性がある。在タイ企業はこのようなタイの洪水リスクを取り巻く環境をあらためて認識したうえで、備えることが重要である。次号では、気候変動への備えを含めて、企業に求められる対策をご紹介する。
[1] その他:アンケートの回答に企業名が不記載であったため製造業・非製造業の区別が不明の企業
[2] 「 タイ大洪水」に関する被災企業アンケート調査結果の公表について(ジェトロ・バンコク事務所)
[3] IMF:https://www.elibrary.imf.org/downloadpdf/journals/002/2012/124/article-A001-en.xml THAI FLOOD 2011
[4] https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/677841468335414861/pdf/698220WP0v10P106011020120Box370022B.pdf
[5] https://www.voicetv.co.th/read/20481 ほか
[6] 地理情報システムより海抜を確認の上、当社にて編集
[7] Hirabayashi, Y., Tanoue, M., Sasaki, O. et al. Global exposure to flooding from the new CMIP6 climate model projections. Sci Rep 11, 3740 (2021)
[8] Hirabayashi, Y., Tanoue, M., Sasaki, O. et al. Global exposure to flooding from the new CMIP6 climate model projections. Sci Rep 11, 3740 (2021)
[9] 気候変動が最も進行するSSP5-RCP8.5 シナリオの結果(IPCC 第5 次評価報告書で用いられているRCP( 代表濃度経路) シナリオ)に基づく

Statistical Data of Fire Incidents During COVID-19 Pandemic

October 18, 2021
Chata Ittivatana

Statistical Data of Fire Incidents During COVID-19 Pandemic

Conclusion

  • Fire incidents keep occurring during COVID-19 pandemic although some industries reduce production capacity.
  • Damages from fire in year 2020 is two times higher in year 2019.
  • The fire incident occurred during the absence of workers for more than 70%.
  • Most common cause of fire incidents comes from short circuit.

          As you are aware of COVID-19 pandemic, this pandemic has been happening since the end of the year 2018. Many companies were interrupted during this period. However, production sectors operate continually so the risk of the accident remains in the industry.

          The statistical data from the Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Thailand shows about fire incidents in 2019. The cost of the damage caused by the fire was about 25 million USD in 2020 which was two times higher than 2019 (In 2019, the cost of damage was 14 million USD), even though the number of fire incidents in 2019 (1,312 times) was higher than 2020 (1,248 times).

Figure 1: Statistic data from the Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Thailand

          From the past fire incidents, the cost of each fire from industry business is higher than 10 million baht (around 0.3 million USD). It can imply that fire in the industry is more severe and losses. The statistical data from the Department of Industrial Works shows that fire incidents occurred 42 times in 2018 and 46 times in 2019. The most frequent type of industry that fire incidents occurred are the maintenance, metal casting, warehouse, plastic, foam, paper, and rubber industries. Moreover, the statistical data from the insurance sector recorded that the fire incident occurred during the absence of workers for more than 70%. During that period, the number of observers is less than a working hour. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, some factories control the number of personnel in each area. Therefore, fire watch in blind spot might insufficient. The response for fire incidents can be delayed which can cause extreme fire incidents. The examples below are the examples of fire incidents occurred during COVID-19 which the fire incidents caused damages for industry business.

Incident case 1: September 23, 2019

          A fire incident occurred at 8:00 P.M. at the pulp warehouse, Chonburi province. The warehouse was covered with fire because the warehouse kept more than 3,000 tons of pulp. The pulp is the fuel to help the fire spread. Due to fire, it makes roof structure of warehouse collapse. Firefighting was using high-pressure water to extinguish the fire, removed the pulp by using a backhoe and removed the gas cylinders to prevent the explosion. The fire was extinguished 18 hours later by 30 fire trucks. For the cause of the fire incident, the officer presumed that it came from cigarette butts then the flakes touched the pulp and catch fire. From this fire incident, the cost of damage is about 60 million baht (1.8 million USD).

Incident case 2: September 30, 2020

At 10:00 P.M., there was fire incident occurred at the manufacture of furniture located in Amata City Pluak Daeng Industrial Estate, Rayong Province. More than 20 fire trucks were used for firefighting. The fire spread rapidly because there were many woods stored inside the factory. The fire was extinguished for more than 3 hours and fire awareness was still conducted in case of the fire reignition. For the cause of the incident, factory’s staff said that the fire started to occur at the hot-cold water dispenser. Then the fire spread to paper boxes and other combustible materials nearby the scene. The staff presumed that the cause was the short circuit of the hot-cold water dispenser. From this fire incident, the cost of damage is more than 70 million baht (2 million USD).

Incident case 3: December 2, 2020

At 11:20 P.M., there was fire incident occurred at warehouse for chemical storage. The chemical is Sodium Hydrogen Sulfide. This chemical is used for food preservatives, paper production, bleaching, soap, etc. A high quantity of chemicals was stored inside the warehouse which the fire explosion occurred continuously. More than 10 fire trucks were used for extinguishing the fire but the fire could not be controlled. Therefore, firefighting officers used foam to extinguish the fire. The fire was extinguished for more than 2 hours. From the investigation, the factory owner said that the staff was transporting the chemical tanks inside the warehouse. During the transportation, there were sparks at the chemical tanks. The factory owner presumed that fire came from sparks at chemical tanks which are metal tanks. From this fire incident, the cost of damage is more than 10 million baht (0.3 million USD). From the mentioned fire incidents occurred in the industries, the incidents caused large amount of damage. The most common cause of fire incidents comes from tiny sparks and then it was widely spread, especially during the absence of workers. Therefore, fire safety audit and inspection are a necessity for the fire prevention. It can help workers to aware of the risks that they might overlook such as electrical inspection, chemical transportation, chemical storage, proper fire extinguishing equipment, and housekeeping in the working area. References http://statbbi.nso.go.th/staticreport/page/sector/th/21.aspx http://direct.disaster.go.th/inner.directing-7.191/cms/inner_1733/5025.3/ https://www.mreport.co.th/news/government-news/333-accident-in-factory-thailand-2020 http://reg3.diw.go.th/safety/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/accident-2563.pd fhttp://www.rtrc.in.th/ewt_dl.php?nid=1588 https://tna.mcot.net/region-545159 https://mgronline.com/local/detail/9630000097279 https://www.newtv.co.th/news/65461 https://www.thairath.co.th/news/local/east/1942951 https://hilight.kapook.com/view/206946 https://thaiza.com/news/local/481742/ https://www.siamsafety.com/index.php?page=news/news03122020_2 https://www.thairath.co.th/news/local/central/1988616 MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc. is a MS&AD Insurance Group company specialized in risk management survey research and consulting services. For inquiry about consultation and seminar etc. for companies expanding business in Thailand, please feel free to contact the nearest Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance or Aioi Nissay Dowa Insurance sales representatives. MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc. International Section, Corporate Planning Department TEL.03-5296-8920 http://www.irric.co.jp InterRisk Asia (Thailand) is a MS&AD Insurance Group company which was established in Thailand to provide risk management services, such as fire safety, flood risk management, electrical safety and risk consulting services, such as automotive risk assessment, occupational safety and burglary risk survey to our clients in Thailand. For inquiry, please feel free to contact us. InterRisk Asia (Thailand) Co., Ltd. 175 Sathorn City Tower, South Sathorn Road, Thungmahamek, Sathorn, Bangkok, 10120, Thailand TEL: +66-(0)-2679-5276 FAX: +66-(0)-2679-5278
The purpose of this report is to provide our customers with the useful information for the occupational safety and health management. There is no intention to criticize any individuals and parties etc.
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Thailand Current Water Situation

October 11, 2021
Masaki Sato

Thailand Current Water Situation

Summary

  • The National Water Command provided flood warning to Bangkok, Nonthaburi and Pathumthani during 7-10 October.
  • Tropical storm “LIONROCK” will become stronger and ashore on upper Vietnam during 10-11 October. This storm may affect northern, northeastern, and central Thailand after 11th
  • The water storage levels of the Sirikit dam and Bhumibol dam are about 50%. Then, both dams still have room to store water and can control river flows.
  • The water storage level of the Pasak dam and Kwaenoi dam has almost reached the upper control level. The amount of water to be released from the dams will increase which may cause a rise in the river water level.
  • The water level of the lower Chao Phraya River has reached “Critical” level at almost all observation points.ฃ
  • Until mid-October, the effects of the tropical storm “LIONROCK” and the water level of the Chao Phraya River should be monitored closely.

Warning announcement from the National Water Command

The flood warning was provided to Bangkok, Nonthaburi and Pathumthani by the National Water Command as there would be water passing Bangsai district in Ayutthaya at the maximum rate of 3,050-3,150 m3/second in the Chao Phraya River. The water would flow to the Gulf of Thailand during 7-10 October. During 7-10 October, the sea level would be rising which would cause the water level in the Chao Phraya River to be 30-50 cm higher. The warned areas include the Chaophraya riverside lowlands outside flood dike in Nonthaburi and Pathumthani and areas without dike installation on both sides of the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok.

Weather Forecast

Thai Meteorological Department announced that a tropical storm “LIONROCK” in the middle South China Sea having a speed of 55 km/hr is expected to become stronger and ashore on upper Vietnam during 10-11 October. This storm may affect northern, northeastern, and central Thailand after 11th October.

Precipitation

  • The figures below show: (left) the difference in cumulative rainfall from the normal (the average rainfall of the last 30 years) for 1st January to 1st September 2021, (center) the difference in cumulative rainfall from the normal for 1st January to 7th October 2021, and (right) the cumulative rainfall for 1st January to 7th October 2021.
  • Comparing the left figure with the center figure below, it can be observed that the western part of northeastern Thailand (Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima), the southern part of northern Thailand (Nakhon Sawan, Uthai Thani), and the northern part of central Thailand (Lopburi, Singburi, Chainat, etc.) experienced heavy rainfall from September to early October, and the cumulative rainfall since 1st January has been much higher than normal (see the area circled in red on the figures below).
  • In Rayong and Chanthaburi in eastern Thailand, the cumulative rainfall since 1st January has been about 500mm above normal.

Dam Storage Level (Sirikit Dam, Bhumibol Dam)

Storage level Sirikit Dam (45%): as of 7 October 2021  *43% as of 26 September 2021

Storage level Bhumibol Dam (51%): as of 7 October 2021  *45% as of 26 September 2021

The water storage levels of the Sirikit dam and the Bhumibol dam have increased by 2% and 6% respectively since 26th September. At the beginning of October 2011, when the major flood occurred, the storage volume of both dams had almost reached the upper control level. Comparing the storage volume as of October 7th 2011 and 2021, the storage volume in Sirikit Dam is 9,409m3 in 2011 while 4,268m3 in 2021 (45%), and that in Bhumibol Dam is 13,307m3 in 2011 while 6,929m3 in 2021 (52%). Both dams still have room to store water and can control river flows even when heavy rains occur in northern Thailand.

Dam Storage Level (Pasak Dam, Kwaenoi Dam)

Storage level Pasak Dam (95%): as of 7 October 2021  *73% as of 26 September 2021

Storage level Kwaenoi Dam (95%): as of 7 October 2021  *83% as of 26 September 2021

The storage level of the Pasak dam and Kwaenoi dam has almost reached the upper control level. These dams also reached this level in mid-September 2011. The amount of water to be released from the dams will increase to reduce their storage volume, which will cause a rise in the water level of the river.

The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow

The water level in the upper Chao Phraya River basin has slightly increased since 27th September. The water levels of the Yom River, Nan River and at the confluence of the four rivers continue to reach “critical” level.

Water Situation in the Chao Phraya River

7th October 2021

Note: – Numbers in bracket indicate the flow rate of water in m3/sec. – Numbers with underline indicate higher (+) or lower (-) of water level than the river bank in meters. – Water levels U/S and D/S are in meters.

The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow

The water level in the lower basin of the Chao Phraya River has been also increasing since 27th September. The Chao Phraya River and the Pasak River are flooding in Ayutthaya and Saraburi, respectively. The water levels at almost all observation points are “Critical”.

Water Situation in the Chao Phraya River

7th October 2021

Note: – Numbers in black indicate the flow rate of water in m3/sec. – Numbers in bracket the flow rate of water in m3/day. – Numbers with underline indicate higher (+) or lower (-) of water level than the river bank in meters. References https://www.tmd.go.th/list_warning.php http://www.arcims.tmd.go.th/dailydata/yearRain.php http://www.thaiwater.net/water/dam/large http://water.rid.go.th/flood/plan_new/chaophaya/Chao_up.php?cal2=01092021 http://water.rid.go.th/flood/plan_new/chaophaya/Chao_low.php?cal2=01092021 MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc. is a MS&AD Insurance Group company specialized in risk management survey research and consulting services. For inquiry about consultation and seminar etc. for companies expanding business in Thailand, please feel free to contact the nearest Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance or Aioi Nissay Dowa Insurance sales representatives. MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc. International Section, Corporate Planning Department TEL.03-5296-8920 http://www.irric.co.jp InterRisk Asia (Thailand) is a MS&AD Insurance Group company which was established in Thailand to provide risk management services, such as fire safety, flood risk management, electrical safety and risk consulting services, such as automotive risk assessment, occupational safety and burglary risk survey to our clients in Thailand. For inquiry, please feel free to contact us. InterRisk Asia (Thailand) Co., Ltd. 175 Sathorn City Tower, South Sathorn Road, Thungmahamek, Sathorn, Bangkok, 10120, Thailand TEL: +66-(0)-2679-5276 FAX: +66-(0)-2679-5278
The purpose of this report is to provide our customers with the useful information for the occupational safety and health management. There is no intention to criticize any individuals and parties etc.

Copyright 2019 MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Heavy rains and flooding caused by tropical storm “Dianmu”

October 4, 2021
Masaki Sato

Heavy rains and flooding caused by tropical storm “Dianmu”

Summary

  • Last weekend, the tropical storm “Dianmu” brought heavy rain to the north, northeast, and central of Thailand.
  • According to the department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM), 58,977 households across 27 provinces have been affected by flood due to the heavy rain in mid-September and the tropical storm “Dianmu”.
  • Sukhothai province in the north and Lopburi province in the central region have been severely damaged according to the DDPM announcement.
  • The water levels at major dams in the upper Chao Phraya River basin have rapidly increased.
The water level of the Chao Phraya River has reached “Critical” level at several observation points. If the amount of water released from the dams increases in the future, the water level in the Chao Phraya River may further increase.

Rainfall brought by the tropical storm “Dianmu”

Tropical storm “Dianmu” turned into a low-pressure on September 25, thus not all rainfall is exactly due to the tropical storm. However, it is described as an effect of “Dianmu” in this news. Tropical storm “Dianmu” caused heavy rainfall mainly in northern, northeastern and central Thailand from around 23rd to 26th September. The observed daily rainfall maps on 24th, 25th, and 26th are shown in the figure below. On 24th and 25th September, daily rainfall of 100 mm to 200 mm was observed in northern, northeastern, central, and eastern Thailand.

Damage by flooding

According to DDPM, 7,392 households have been affected by severe flood in Sukhothai province in northern Thailand, while 37,451 and 453 households have been damaged in Lopburi province and Chaiyaphum province respectively in central region. The figure below shows a map of flooded areas for the past seven days (September 21 to September 27) published by the Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA). According to the map, other than the above three provinces, flooding has also occurred in Phitsanulok, Phichit, Phetchabun, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachinburi, and Ayutthaya provinces. In Nakhon Ratchasima province, the provincial government has issued a warning because the water volume in some reservoirs has exceeded their capacity.

Weather Forecast

Thai Meteorological Department announced that: “During 28-30 Sep, the weak monsoon trough lie across the lower Central and the upper South while the weak southwest monsoon prevails over the Andaman Sea, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand. Less rain is likely over Thailand but still isolated heavy rain in the East and the South. During 1 – 3 Oct, the weak monsoon trough will move up to lie across the North, the Northeast, the upper Central and the East. The southwest monsoon prevails over the Andaman Sea, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand will strengthen. More rain is likely over Thailand and isolated heavy rain in the East and the South.”

Dam Storage Level (Sirikit Dam, Bhumibol Dam)

Storage level Sirikit Dam (43%): as of 26 September 2021 Storage level Bhumibol Dam (45%): as of 26 September 2021 The water storage levels of Sirikit dam and Bhumibol dam have increased by 5% and 11% respectively since 1st September due to the rainfall in early to mid-September and the tropical storm “Dianmu”. It is possible that the storage levels of both dams will continue to increase. However, at present, the water storage levels are less than half of the level in 2011 when a major flood occurred.

Dam Storage Level (Pasak Dam, Kwaenoi Dam)

Storage level Pasak Dam (73%): as of 1 September 2021 Storage level Kwaenoi Dam (83%): as of 1 September 2021 The water storage levels of Pasak dam and Kwaenoi dam have rapidly increased by 67% and 55% respectively since 1st September due to the rainfall in early to mid-September and the tropical storm “Dianmu”. The water level in Pasak Dam usually spikes in September. This year, due to tropical cyclone Dianmu, the water level has almost reached the upper control level. For Kwaenoi dam, the water level has also alomost reached the upper control level and is approximately 85% of the water level in 2011.

The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow

The water flow in the upper Chaophraya River basin has rapidly increased since 1st September. River flooding have occurred between Sukhothai and Phichit. The water level of Wang River, Nan River, and at the confluence of the four rivers have reached “Critical” level.

Water Situation in the Chao Phraya River

27th September 2021

Note: – Numbers in bracket indicate the flow rate of water in m3/sec. – Numbers with underline indicate higher (+) or lower (-) of water level than the river bank in meters. – Water levels U/S and D/S are in meters.

The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow

The water level in the lower basin of the Chaophraya River has been also increasing rapidly. River flooding has occurred in Utai Thani and the water levels at several observation points are “Critical”. However, the water flow is still under the control in most areas.

Water Situation in the Chao Phraya River

27th September 2021

Note: – Numbers in black indicate the flow rate of water in m3/sec. – Numbers in bracket the flow rate of water in m3/day. – Numbers with underline indicate higher (+) or lower (-) of water level than the river bank in meters. References https://mgronline.com/local/detail/9640000095509h ttps://floodlist.com/asia/thailand-tropical-storm-dianmu-floods-september-2021 http://flood.gistda.or.th/ https://www.tmd.go.th/en/7-day_forecast.php http://www.arcims.tmd.go.th/dailydata/DailyRain.php http://www.arcims.tmd.go.th/dailydata/yearRain.php http://www.thaiwater.net/water/dam/large http://water.rid.go.th/flood/plan_new/chaophaya/Chao_up.php?cal2=27092021 http://water.rid.go.th/flood/plan_new/chaophaya/Chao_low.php?cal2=27092021 InterRisk Asia (Thailand) is a MS&AD Insurance Group company which was established in Thailand to provide risk management services, such as fire safety, flood risk management, electrical safety and risk consulting services, such as automotive risk assessment, occupational safety and burglary risk survey to our clients in Thailand. For inquiry, please feel free to contact us. InterRisk Asia (Thailand) Co., Ltd. 175 Sathorn City Tower, South Sathorn Road, Thungmahamek, Sathorn, Bangkok, 10120, Thailand TEL: +66-(0)-2679-5276 FAX: +66-(0)-2679-5278 The purpose of this report is to provide our customers with the useful information for the occupational safety and health management. There is no intention to criticize any individuals and parties etc.

Copyright 2021 MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Tropical Storm Noul Approaching Thailand

September 21, 2020
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

Tropical storm noul path Thailand

Tropical Storm Noul Approaching Thailand

Summary

  • Typhoon from Category 3 Tropical Storm Noul could reach Thailand as early as this Friday 18th of September, according to TMD (Thai Meteorological Department).
  • Torrential rain is expected with strong winds starting from the Northeast, then reaching the North, Central, East and South of Thailand respectively.
  • Areas with low elevations could risk flash floods and water runoff from the severe rainfall.
  • Recommendation to factories are to secure buildings for wind and storm damages, while closely monitoring the news for further updates.

Forecast

  • At 10:00 am 17th September, the storm is due 600 km northeast of Vietnam with sustained winds of 80 km/hour, and travelling at 20 km/hour and expected to intensify.
  • In the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, the wind waves will be stronger with the waves 2-3 meters high in the Andaman Sea, about 2 meters high in the Gulf of Thailand.
[caption id="attachment_2785" align="aligncenter" width="893"] Expected track of tropical storm Noul (Source: TMD)[/caption]

Affected Provinces

Very heavy rain (over 90 mm/hour) and heavy rain (over 35 mm/hour) are forecasted by TMD in many provinces from 18th to 20th September as follows.
North: Mae Hong Son, Lamphun, Lampang, Nan, Phrae, Uttaradit, Sukhothai, Tak, Kamphaeng Phet, Phitsanulok, Phichit, Phetchabun North: Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang, Phrae, Phayao, Nan, Uttaradit, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, Tak, Kamphaeng Phet, Phichit, Phetchabun North: Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Lampang, Tak, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet
Northeast: Loei, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Bueng Kan, Udon Thani, Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, Mahasarakham, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Roi Et, Yasothon, Amnat Charoen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Ubon Ratchathani Northeast: Loei, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Bueng Kan, Udon Thani, Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, Mahasarakham, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Roi Et, Yasothon, Amnat Charoen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Ubon Ratchathani Northeast: Nil
Central: Ratchaburi, Kanchanaburi, Saraburi, Lop Buri, Nakhon Sawan, Uthai Thani. Central: Kanchanaburi, Uthai Thani, Chainat, Nakhon Sawan, Lop Buri, Saraburi, Bangkok Central: Ratchaburi, Kanchanaburi, Uthai Thani, Suphanburi, Chainat
East: Nakhon Nayok, Prachinburi, Sa Kaeo, Chachoengsao, Chonburi, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat. East: Nakhon Nayok, Prachin Buri, Sa Kaeo, Chachoengsao, Chon Buri, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat East: Chon Buri, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat
South: Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Surat Thani, Ranong, Phang Nga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Satun South: Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Satun South: Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi

References

https://www.windy.com/?15.813,74.795,5 https://www.tmd.go.th/en/list_warning.php https://reliefweb.int/report/thailand/weather-warning-category-2-tropical-depression-middle-south-china-sea-no-2-time

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Part 2

June 18, 2020
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

– Eliminate poverty within 2070. At present, the income lower than $1.90 per day is used as an indicator. – Equal access to economic resources, including basic need and land ownership – Build immunity to natural disaster, economic, and political crisis. – By creating warranty of significant resource assemble from different sources – By creating optimal scope of country, regional and international policies, based on a pro-poor strategy – Eliminate hunger and access to food safety and nutrition within 2070. – Eliminate all kinds of Malnutrition – Increase in agricultural products and in income of small food producers to be twice, including equal access to land property, resources, import factors, knowledge, financial management and value-adding opportunity. – By investing in rural and agricultural research and development – By preventing trade barrier in agricultural trade world – By allow access to food market information and eliminating food price fluctuation

– Reduce maternal mortality ratio worldwide to be less than 70 per 100,000 within 2070. – Eliminate infant mortality rate (IMR) to 12 per 1,000 and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) to 25 per 1,000 within 2070. – Eliminate AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria and neglected tropical diseases. – Reduce one-third of untimely death from NCDs by supporting good metal health and well-being within 2070. – Promote prevention of using drugs and alcohol. – Reduce road accident death. – Access to reproductive health information – Fulfill the universal health care coverage. – Reduce death and sickness from dangerous chemicals and pollution – By proceeding under the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control – By funding vaccines and medicine R&D – By investing more on healthcare and developing medical staff – By increasing potential in healthcare warning and risk management

– Free quality basic education (elementary/secondary) – Sufficient access to quality elementary education – Access to affordable and quality basic techniques, vocational and undergraduate study. – Increase skilled youths and adults for employment. – Eliminate gender inequality in education and ensure that fragile group: disabled, tribes and children have equal access to education. – Assure that high proportion of youths and adults, both male and female are literate. – Assure that all students are well-educated and trained with skills for sustainable development. – By improving educational devices to suit all groups of people – By expanding scholarship worldwide and IT and science vocational training – By increasing number of quality teachers

– Eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and girls around the world. – Eliminate all forms of violence to women and girls in public, including human trafficking and sexual violence. – Eliminate all harmful practices such as forced and early marriage. – Acknowledge and value unpaid care and domestic work and promote of shared responsibilities within the household and the family. -Assure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership in all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life. – Assure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences. – By reform to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws – By enhancing the use of information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women – By applying and strengthening suitable policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

– Succeed in clean water access for everyone. – Succeed in adequate sanitation and terminate outdoor excretion. – Improve water quality by reducing pollution, stop littering, reduce non-treated water to half and increase the reuse of water. – Improve water using efficiency to relief water shortage. – Improve holistic water management. – Protect and restore water ecosystem. – By expanding international cooperation to increase capability for developing country regarding water and sanitation – By promoting and strengthening in community involvement in water management – Ensure the access to new affordable and reliable energy services. – Increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. – Improve energy utilization efficiency. – By enhancing international cooperation to facilitate the access to R&D of clean energy and renewable energy, including clean fossil energy and promoting investment in clean energy infrastructure and technology – By expanding infrastructure and developing technology to deliver the modern and sustainable energy services – Increase individual’s economic growth, especially increase the GDP of low-developing countries at least 7% per year. – Succeed in increasing productivity and economic values through technology and innovation. – Promote the policies that support productivity, employment, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and growth of SMEs. – Improve resources utilization and persevere to disconnect economic growth from environmental impairment. – Succeed in maximum employment and productivity with equality for all groups of people, including youths and disabled. – Reduce proportion of unemployed, uneducated and untrained youths. – Immediately and efficiently eliminate forced labor, slave labor, child labor and human trafficking. – Protect labor rights and promote safe working environment for all labors, including alien labors. – Create sustainable tourism policy to support employment, culture and local products. – Strengthen access to financial institutions and financial services. – By increasing Aid for Trade for developing countries – By following International Labor Organization (ILO) for child employment

– Develop quality, reliable sustainable infrastructure that is affordable and equal. – Promote inclusive and sustainable industry development. – Increase access to financial services for SMEs. – Enhance industrial infrastructure for sustainable and efficient resource utilization. – Increase science and innovation research – By promoting infrastructure in developing countries – By promoting technology and innovation development in developing countries. – By increasing access to information and internet References *1: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_Development_Goals *2: https://sdgmove.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/sdg-e0b881e0b8b1e0b89a-e0b881e0b8b2e0b8a3e0b89ee0b8b1e0b892e0b899e0b8b2e0b88ae0b8b8e0b8a1e0b88ae0b899e0b897e0b989e0b8ade0b887e0b896.pdf *3: http://e-plan.dla.go.th/activityImage/422.pdf

Introduction to Business Continuity in Thailand

June 17, 2020
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

What is Business Continuity Management?

Business Continuity Management (BCM) is the framework to counter the effects of crises and interruptions from external and internal risks to a business. The strategy consists of hard and soft assets for successful prevention and recovery. BCM can be part of a business’ risk management (RM) strategy. The term “Business Continuity” is, according to the ISO 22301 Standard, defined as the “capability of an organization to continue the delivery of products and services within acceptable time frames at predefined capacity during and after a disruption.” BCM covers disaster recovery, business recovery, crisis management, incident management, emergency management and contingency planning. The following Figure 1 shows the relationship between BCM, BCM, Disaster Recovery Planning, and Crisis Response.

What is Business Continuity Planning?

Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is a planning process that is part of BCM. The main purpose of a BCP is to address and mitigate all risks affecting a company’s business operations for managing and responding to risks, used for public, non-profit, non-government and private entities. Risk can include many incidents from cyber-attacks to natural disasters. Between 35 and 50 percent of businesses never recover after major disasters. These disruptions cause revenue loss and difficulty in recovery if no BCP or inadequate BCPs were implemented. Not all companies have business continuity planning, however this is quickly changing. BCP is now an important process that should be implemented across all industries.

What is an Emergency?

An emergency is an occurrence that needs response to minimize loss of life, property, environment and business operations. These could be human-caused, natural or technology-caused. A typical example of an emergency where BCP is used, is a fire incident that caused property loss. Other common emergencies include natural disasters such as earthquakes or floods, information security, product liability, long-term delay and suspension of product supplies, impacts of climate change, terrorism, political unrest etc. Planning for all possible disruptions is ideal, but most plans try to incorporate as many likely to occur main threats to the business as possible, depending on the type of industry and current global risk trend.

What is the difference between Emergency Planning and BCP?

Emergency planning and business continuity planning play different roles for an effective risk strategy. In general, emergency plans cover response and reactions to the disruption, whereas BCPs deal with continuing the business following the disruption. A single business continuity plan may have many disaster recovery plans.

BCP Standards

Standards provide criteria to develop, implement, assess, and maintain the BCP program to cover prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, continuity, and recovery. Major standards are NFPA 1600, mainly used in the US, and ISO 22301, which is internationally used.

Components of BCP

There are 4 main components in BCP. The following is a brief description on how to conduct a BCP program: Understand: Understand your organization’s operations and hazards (risk assessment) and how disruptions affect them (Business Impact Analysis). Plan: implement and organize the strategies for recovery, allocating people to procedures, and documentation. A clear prevention plan is included. Improve: Exercising, testing and changing plans for review. Planning must be tested regularly for different risk scenarios for continuous improvement consistent with the entity’s policy, goals, and objectives. Audit activities are included. Train: All employees should be aware of such plan. [caption id="attachment_2670" align="aligncenter" width="640"] Your business could stop indefinitely if no BCP is in place.[/caption]

BCP in Thailand

In terms of preparedness, Thailand has no clear plan in business continuity on a national level. Most large corporations will already have BCPs as part of their risk management plan to comply with the company’s good business practice and risk policies. In addition, only businesses with direct disaster experience will have BCPs or partial BCPs in place. Much more awareness creation is needed. SMEs: 99% of Thai business enterprises are SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), which is defined as private organizations with less than 200 people. The Office of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Promotion (OSMEP), under the Ministry of Industry, showed that there are 2.9 million SMEs in Thailand. Thai SMEs have low-level preparedness on business continuity planning, according to a study from 2018.  In addition, the degree of knowledge on BCP depends on the size of the business, period in which the business is in operation, and disaster experience. Those with disaster experience are more likely to have BCP. In another survey conducted in 2012, only 13% of SMEs have a business continuity plan, while 34.8% are in the process of developing one. Supporting business resilience in disaster-prone areas will need public and private support in promoting BCM practices. Industrial Estates: In the past, BCP of industrial estates in Thailand mainly focused on natural disasters. This is inevitably due to the direct experiences with catastrophes such as the 2011 Flood, where Thai businesses who activated their BCP strategy after the flood recovered better than those without. Increased interest in developing business continuity usually results from these crises. Others:  More immediate opportunities have emerged for Thailand to develop BCP in other areas which applies to all businesses. This is shown recently by the case of Covid-19 pandemic this year, as most businesses were caught off-guard and were unprepared to handle the global virus pandemic which affected all business across the country. Cyber security will be another key risk in the future for Thailand. [caption id="attachment_2673" align="alignright" width="241"] http://www.un.or.th/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/UN-Thailand-Annual-Report-2018.pdf[/caption]

Frameworks in Thailand on BCP

In Thailand, The National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) conducted a BCP study in 2011. Implementation of the BCP is classified into 3 levels: the national, regulatory and business enterprise levels and identifies that at: The national level: Thailand has no clear plan in business continuity. The Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM) manages and handles emergency situations, and the agency only focuses on the implementation and management of disasters that affect the lives and property of citizens. The regulatory level: This is an agency that links the implementation of the BCP between the national level and the business enterprise level. Currently, regulators encourage the development of BCP by some financial institutions, such as the Bank of Thailand. The group actively promotes and pushes the development of more robust BCP measures. The Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand Area BCP Bangkadi Industrial Park Area, Pathumthani Province, Thailand also promotes the development of BCP in their industrial and entrepreneurial networks together with exercise of a drill at least once a year. The business enterprise level: Large enterprises have been implementing business continuity management (BCM), which is caused by the awareness of the organization itself and because it is also regulated, such as by the ISO 22301. This has influenced some sectors such as the banking sector to comply with the regulations. Despite these implementations, some organizations may manage and plan for BCP, but still have not understood its concept well, which hinders co-operation on the national level.

Tools

Developing BCP should be a dynamic, ongoing process, as ‘crisis adaptability is the key to continuity’.  Many different tools and services are available to facilitate BCPs. Gathering this information could be done manually or automated with the help of software to reduce time and cost, common for IT recovery planning.  An example guidance for BCP can be found from WHO (World Health Organization). #1 Risk assessment:
  1. Identify and evaluate risk
  2. Actions to manage/mitigate the risk
  3. Future monitoring and procedures to prevent risks from occurring
#2 Business Impact Analysis (BIA): an analysis that identifies, quantifies, and qualifies the impacts resulting from interruptions or disruptions of an organization’s resources by using engineering analysis, mathematical modeling, simulations, surveys, questionnaires, interviews, structured workshops, or a combination thereof.
  1. Assess impact over time on the products and services and at what cost
  2. Prioritize recovery from key areas and critical functions, identifying the critical business processes and “Single Points of Failure” (SPOFs)
  3. Identify dependence between business areas and functions
  4. Determine the acceptable downtime for each function
  5. Identify resources for continuity support
  6. Make an initial plan to maintain operations
#3 Recovery strategy planning: The risks (see Figure 4) could either be controlled, transferred, avoided, or accepted. The most common strategies involve some type of third-party data center for backup, an alternate, off-site processing location and alternate workspace to restore operations to a minimally acceptable level. #4 Testing: Many organizations test several times a year to improve the plan, depending on the business type of the organization. Employee turnover, number of business processes, and other changes will affect the frequency of testing. Drills or disaster role-playing could be incorporated once a year through discussions (tabletops) with key business units or actual disaster walk-through (exercises). [caption id="attachment_2717" align="aligncenter" width="625"] https://www.set.or.th/th/regulations/supervision/files/Disclosure_Focus/Aug_%2053.pdf[/caption] A PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle), shown in Figure 5, can be used in the BCM strategy.

Example BCP Scenarios

The following could be used as example for tabletop exercises: Scenario 1: A fire occurs in the office. Employees are safely outside, however, client information cannot be accessed as most computers and servers were destroyed in the fire. Hard copies of files and documents containing important data are lost. How is data backed up? Where? How much can be recovered? How are clients to be notified of the fire accident? Scenario 2: Viral pandemic An ongoing flu pandemic is occurring globally. Staff numbers are likely to fluctuate due to sickness or care for family members. Loss of 25% of staff is likely. How can the organization continue to serve customers? What is the chain of command? How to communicate during the crisis and what are the policies? What should happen when attendance drops and fatalities occur? What if the pandemic disease continues for longer than one year?

Conclusion

To ensure a successful plan, companies must be proactive about implementing technologies and protocols that will prevent disruptive events from occurring in the first place. Creating a clear path to recovery with an ongoing BCP will give the organization confidence in dealing with such protocols and systems, hence, rapid business recovery will result. Find out more about our BCP services.

Reference

NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs 2019 Edition “Business Continuity Management” GAP.1.15, Global Asset Protection Services LLC 2015 https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/threat-risk-management/risk-management/current-risk/bcm-resilience/bc-rm-interfaces Doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.390 Practical Process for Introducing Smart Business Continuity Management of Smart City in Japan – Scientific Figure on ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/BCP-concept_fig1_304713463 [accessed 18 May, 2020] Photo by Curioso Photography from Pexels Video on BCP https://youtu.be/vBWwyJwcdlg WHO Guidance for Business Continuity Planning. Geneva: World Health Organization; [2018]. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/threat-risk-management/risk-management/current-risk/bcm-resilience/files/ic_relationship.jpg https://www.sciencedirect.com/sdfe/pdf/download/eid/3-s2.0-B9780123822338000169/first-page-pdf https://www.adpc.net/igo/contents/Publications/publications-Details.asp?pid=1163 https://www.adpc.net/igo/category/ID1163/doc/2017-kpg6Jv-ADPC-01_AreaBCP_English_Final_Report_20170220.pdf https://www.sumipol.com/knowledge/smes-%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%A7%E0%B9%83%E0%B8%88%E0%B8%97%E0%B8%B5%E0%B9%88%E0%B9%81%E0%B8%97%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%88%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%87%E0%B8%82%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%A8%E0%B8%A3/ https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.10.002 https://www.adrc.asia/publications/bcp/survey_2012.pdf https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#iso:std:iso:22301:ed-2:v1:en https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240177042_Business_Continuity_Management_Time_for_a_Strategic_Role https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240177042_Business_Continuity_Management_Time_for_a_Strategic_Role https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/continuity-planning

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Part 1

June 10, 2020
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

All Sustainable Development Goals

What is a sustainable development?           

A development that can satisfy the demand of the current generation and will not reduce the future generation’s potential to satisfy their needs. A society will be sustainable when there is a balance of 3 dimensions: Environment, Economy and Society. After the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) came to an end in 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are launched by all United Nations Members States on September 2015 which are part of UN resolution 70/1 and intended to be achieved by the year 2030. The goals provided a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. SDGs consists of 17 topics as follows: All 17 goals which are classified into 5 topics (5P).
  1. People End poverty and hunger in all forms and ensure dignity and equality. (Goals 1-5)
  2. Planet Protect our planet’s natural resources and climate for future generations. (Goals: 6 12 13 14 and 15)
  3. Prosperity Ensure prosperous and fulfilling lives in harmony with nature. (Goal 7-11)
  4. Peace Peaceful, just and inclusive societies. (Goal 16)
  5. Partnership Implement the agenda through a solid global partnership. (Goal 17)

Features of Sustainable Development Goals

1. Inclusive Development – Sufficient coverage of development. Leave no one behind. 2. Universal Development – Not for only poor countries but to support all countries 3. Integrated Development – Harmonizing of all 17 goals 4. Locally-focused Development – The goals must be applied to both urban and rural areas (Bottom up approach). 5. Technology-driven Development – SDGs need a modern technology to succeed, especially the one relating to data. One example of understanding SDGs systemically. In countries that has increasing rate of enrollment, there are some students who are still not able to access to schools due to poverty and the distance to school. In addition, if the student is a female, her parents may think that going to school is not necessary. In order to solve this problem, 7 goals have to be integrated: Goal 1 No Poverty, Goal 2 Zero Hunger, Goal 4 Quality Education, Goal 5 Gender Equality, Goal 6 Clean Water and Sanitation, Goal 10 Reduce Inequalities, Goal 16 Peace Justice and Strong Institution. SDGs in Thailand SDGs are used as a guide to Thailand’s 20-Year National Strategy (2018-2037) which is legislated in the Constitution of Thailand 2017. To achieve SDGs, the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) and Thailand’s 20-Year National Strategy are the ideas and method to conduct. In Thailand, SDGs are supervised by the National Committee for Sustainable Development (CSD) which is set up by thai government, headed by the Prime Minister. Consisting of 37 members from the integration of public sectors, private sectors and civil society sector and having the Secretary-General National Economic and Social Development Board as the secretariat. In order to provide more channels for the local communities to work with the government sector, the cabinet also established three new national committees in 2017-2018. Such committees are a committee for the implementation of government policies, a committee on building the capacity of local communities and a committee on the Sustainable Thai Nyom Project*. “Business sectors are the largest culprit in destroying environment” said Ray Anderson, CEO of Interface Company in TED TALK 2019. Many thai companies have initiated their projects towards the SDGs. Most companies have to review their corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and/or have to adjust their production processes to decrease the impact on environment. In Thailand, there is an organization that specially aims for sustainable development called Thailand Business Council for Sustainable Development (TBCSD), founded in 1993. Currently, there are 38 organizations as a member that involves following occupancies: agricultural, financial, service, technology, industrial, consumer products, resources, real estate and others. Some examples of cooperation projects between TBCSD and Thailand Environment Institute (TEI) are Carbon Reduction Certification for Building which encourages the involvement of manufacturers and consumers in global warming reduction via the market mechanism and Green Label for the environmentally friendly products. Several large Thai corporations also initiates their SDGs projects. CP All and PTT, for instance. *Thai Nyom Project can be translated as “sustainable Thai way”. It is a project for government to collect opinions (Big Data) from citizens to allow the government to know about people’s needs such as the economy in people’s views. In 2015, CP All became a member of UNGC (United Nation Global Compact) and use 17 goals as a business plan guide. By classifying SDGs into 3 topics: Heart (Living Right), Health (Living Well) and Home (Living Together). Heart focuses on “Governance” inside the organization which can refer to a core value for all staff and be more open to different point of views to create new innovations. Health focuses on what we can do to create sustainability for a society. And, Home is how we can reserve dwellings for our and future generations. What Pid Thong Lung Pra foundation, supported and cooperated with UNGC, is doing is an example of “Home”. The foundation is targeting on water management which is the heart of farmers’ living. PTT, as an energy company, comes up with 3P strategy which is the balancing between People, Planet and Profit. Famous project for “People” are “Pacharat School” by becoming 1 from 12 supporter companies. The project applies the management way of private company to the school system. Another significant project is EECi (Eastern Economic Corridor of Innovation) in Wang Chan Valley in Rayong Province to be the Smart Natural Innovation Platform with the purpose of driving research and innovation. The project develops infrastructure on the area of 3,302 rai to be in accordance with “Smart City”.

What are business risks and chances for Thai company with SDGs?

It is apparent that the world’s population keeps increasing every year. By 2050, the world’s population is expected to increase by 10 million people, meaning that the demand will also increase. This can benefit in a larger market segment. On the other side, in order to produce more products, can the technology satisfy that production level, while land limitation exists. There are several challenges or risks that the business sectors have to consider. The challenges may be separated into 2 forms: External drives and Internal Drives. External drives are mostly from international organizations such as UN and WTO that regulate how the productions will not further damage environment. Internal drives are more critical as It is important for business sectors to be proactive rather than reactive. Business sectors have to know themselves well, for example, is the cost low enough? are there new innovations? are there new markets? or using Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI)* as an indicator. *Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI) are a family of indices evaluating the sustainability performance of thousands of companies, operated under S&P Dow Jones Indices. Thailand has advantages in some industries due to the location such as Trade & Finance, as Thailand is located in the center of ASEAN, Tourism and obviously agricultural and food industries. On the other hand, there are lots of units that are still in Thailand 1.0 level, especially the agricultural units (farmers) which are 40-50% of the overall Thailand’s population. The more SMEs transformed to 4.0, the more inequality it will become for the agricultural section.

In the following chapters, we will talk about all 17 goals in detail.