Bangkok’s hazy morning could be pleased to many people but this fog is actually a cluster of very small and dangerous dust particles that can easily enter and harm human’s body. The air quality of Bangkok has been getting worse since the second week of January. The pollution level (PM2.5) remains at hazardous level in many areas of Bangkok and the surrounding provinces. This year’s situation is worse than that in 2018. Experts conclude that the combustion from diesel engines, burning of biomass and industrial activities are the main causes of the situations from both inside country and neighboring countries. From the study, Bangkok’s PM2.5 haze usually occurs in drought season or cold season of Thailand due to the stagnant air movement. In the big picture, the haze problems also takes place in other ASEAN countries such as Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. This could be a failure of Asean Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (AATHP) to enforce its members to stop expansion of monoculture farming and rapid deforestation.
What is PM 2.5?
PM2.5 dust is any particle that is smaller than 2.5 microns which is comparable to bacteria size. Human’s hair has an average size around 50 microns and PM2.5 dust is 20 times smaller than human’s hair. Thus, the particles can easily penetrate the nasal hair to the lungs which can increase the risk of lung cancer. PM2.5 is the main pollutants in many countries like China, USA and European countries as it can stay in the atmosphere for a long time and can travel for a long distance. The sources of PM2.5 are mainly from the diesel engine combustion, the burning of biomass, dust from combining of pollutant gases and the industrial activities.
Impacts of PM2.5 and StandardsImpacts of PM2.5 and Standards
Because of its tiny size, PM2.5 can easily enter human’s lungs and bloodstream which can obviously affect human’s health. The study shows that the PM2.5 can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer or even death. Children, elderly and pregnant women will be more risky to PM2.5 than adults. Long term exposure to PM2.5 might be an important risk factor of hypertension in adults and can even deteriorate the reproductive system. According to Thailand’s standard, the PM2.5 level should not exceed 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air, while the WHO’s standard is set at 25 micrograms per cubic meter of air.
The Pollution Control Department strictly orders the vehicles emitting black smoke off the roads and to prevent people from lighting a fire outdoors, and asks people to reduce their use of private vehicles. However, these actions may not be effective immediately.
The help from meteorological factors such as weather (temperature and wind speed) and precipitation could be the best option. The study has found that the high temperature weather was more helpful to diffusion of pollutants than the low temperature. The rainfall also affects the removal of particles. The average PM2.5 concentration decreased by 56.3% after the rainfall by the PM2.5 concentration remains after 1 hour of rainfall and will keep declining within the next 12 hours. Therefore, there is an attempt of rainmaking to settle the dust.
The simplest way people can protect themselves is to wear N95 mask when going outdoor which is more capable of filtering the PM2.5 than the normal mask. Since the outdoor PM2.5 pollution cannot be easily controlled, it is important to control the indoor air quality by using the air filter.
Applications for checking PM2.5
The air quality can be checked by the following applications and website.
The graph below indicates the changes in the mass density of PM2.5 at one of the monitoring station in center area of Bangkok from 1st January 2019 to 15th February 2019.
https://www.beartai.com/article/tech-article/303260 https://thaipublica.org/2019/01/air-pollution-pm10-pm2-5/ https://www.bangkokpost.com/news/general/1610854/bangkok-air-pollution-remains-at-hazardous-levels http://www.nationmultimedia.com/detail/national/30343974?fbclid=IwAR3kN-1X0MXD2guaftMiNAWu9RuM83uH6d0p2LeI4NF1oApFBpv1ff2-FCg https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876983/ https://aqicn.org/city/thailand/bangkok/chulalongkorn-hospital/ http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific
From the investigations of the Forensics Department of the National Police Force, staffs of the Engineering Institute and staffs related to the incident, Mr. Pichaya Chantranuwat, the Director of the Engineering Institute of Thailand states that the origin of the fire is from the fire pump room on the B2 basement floor. The fire travelled from the underground floor B2 up to the 8th floor via the interconnecting duct between the B2 and 8th floor. The duct is horizontally installed and is made from fiberglass, which is not designed for high heat resistance. The heat spreading to the 8th floor’s duct caused it to collapse and obstruct the fire exit of the 8th floor which caused the smoke to be trapped and was not able to escape outside. The situation was worsened by large amount of combustibles which helped sustained and grow the fire.
Due to the old age of the building, the outdated duct design is considered to be a weak point. On the other hand, newly constructed buildings would have the heat resistant ducts installed or fire dampers inside the duct in order to prevent the air from coming inside. Building inspections for old buildings will be restricted to original structural inspections, and no emphasis will be made on the matters previously mentioned. Mr. Pichaya also states that the laws and regulations for building fires exist, but are difficult to enforce.
From our experience of surveying numerous factories, we hypothesize that the underground B2 floor, which contains the wastewater treatment equipment and other utilities, had methane gas, hydrogen sulfide gas, and ammonia gas accumulated from the wastewater treatment process. These gases can be ignited and catch fire quickly from electric sparks of the blower machine, which was inside the room, according to the news. This could be the cause of the fire incident. Afterwards, the smoke and heat rose into the ventilation duct which if no inspections were regularly performed, debris and residues could be the fire’s medium and helped spread the fire. This lead to continuous fire inside the duct due to the duct’s inability to resist fire, finally causing the pipe to be damaged, collapsing to block the exits.
[caption id="attachment_2260" align="aligncenter" width="225"] Traffic Congestions in Bangkok[/caption]
|Area||Expected rainfall amount in rainy season 2018 (mm)|
|Sothern (Thai Gulf)||224||262||278||303||330||255|
|Flood news during the past weeks: May 16th 2018: Heavy rainfall in Bueng Sub-District of Sriracha District, Chonburi Province caused 50 cm high flood as an influence from the tropical storm. The area has never been flooded before. May 20th 2018: Windstorms hit several provinces causing falling trees and electric posts such as in Chaiyaphum, Phrae and Uttaradit. May 22nd 2018: The water from stream overflowed to the villages in Lampang Province after 5 hours of rainfall. May 24th 2018: Heavy rainfall in the night caused water logged in the village in Muang District of Chiang Mai Province. May 26th 2018: All-night rain in Pang Nga caused flood on Takua Pa-Phuket road which paralyzed the traffic. May 27th 2018: After 2 hours of raining, the flash flood from mountain attacked villages in Phayao Province. June 4th 2018: 30 cm high flood due to heavy rainfall in Khon Kaen and Udonthani Provinces. June 5th 2018: One-hour heavy rainfall in Phuket caused floods on many road surfaces and flowed to the residence areas. It also caused landslides in some areas. June 5th 2018: Heavy rain in Korat caused flood and flashflood to destroy road. This caused paralyzed traffic and car accident. June 9th 2018: Chao Phraya dam increased the drainage rate from 250 m3/s to 350 m3/s to due to the increasing amount of water from the northern region.|
Have you ever wondered how our confidential or personal information leaks from us? Or how they fall into the wrong hands? The answers differs from a simple methods to advanced ones, so firstly for someone who may not be involved in cyber security to understand overall pictures is to know what is data breach? And where do data flow? Data breach is an incident where information is stolen or taken from a system without the knowledge or authorization of the system’s owner which can cause a small company or a large organization to suffer great loss. Stolen data may involve sensitive, proprietary, or confidential information, such as credit card numbers, customer data or trade secrets. There are so many ways data can easily leak out of an organization. There are three buckets or containers where information “lives and flows”; in digital form, in hard copy (paper) and in the conversation. Information is constantly flowing between these containers, usually resting in more than one of them at any given moment without some type of map or landscape that lays them all out. Data leak is divided into 2 classes which are internal data leakage and leakage from external threats. In total, there are shown 19 ways below.
2017: High amount of Rainfall According to TMD the amount of rainfall in 2017 is more than average at 1,700 mm where the average country is 1572 mm. according to the reference the amount of yearly rainwater in 2011 is at 1,781mm The water is under irrigation department management which is diverted to canals and water retention areas (monkey cheek). In this regards, if the water management fails, the flood similar to 2011 could occurs due to the amount of rainfall. It is important to inspect and ensure that the flood protection and management is reliable and fully functional. The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow The amount of water from Upper Chaophraya has increased and spread to wider area but still under its capacity in most area. The critical area is in Phichit area where Yom and Nan river adjoins. In addition to Chainat area. However, the situation is same as last month. The amount of water increased largely came from Ping and Wang river. The amount of water at Chao Phraya river dam has increased from 2,600 m3/s to 2,700 m3/s. Premises near Chaophraya River should be aware of the situation. The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow The amount of water from Upper Chaophraya has contiously increased. Many area has been flooded in Singburi and Chaophraya. Water in many area is also at critical level. In case of heavy rainfall, the drainage from land to the major river could be reduced and resulted in inland flood. It is necessary to check the drainage capacity and the ability to drain water to major rivers.
The malicious code refers to a broad category of programs that can cause damage or undesirable effects to computers or networks. Possible damage can include modifying, destroying or stealing sensitive data, gaining or allowing unauthorized access to a system and executing functions that a user never intended. So computer viruses are the most common form of malicious code. A virus is a program that infects a computer by attaching itself to another program and propagating itself when that program is executed. It should be noted that some malicious programs are able to exhibit the behaviors of more than one type of malicious code. For example, certain programs may be both a virus and a Trojan horse at the same time. Thus there are plenty of antiviruses are available in the market which uses different approaches to detect and remove viruses. Generally, these approaches can be distinguished into three categories 1) Signature-based detection 2) Heuristic-based detection and 3) Behavioral-based detection
The reaction time for car accidents depends on each person’s ability and training. The ability of emergency response is related to the decision time. Furthermore, the decision should consider disadvantages like the amount of people injured and property damage. Research shows that the time of low awareness and concentration decreases the ability to respond, increasing the risk of accident. The necessary driving skills are accuracy of response, quick reaction time and good control of the steering wheel. Presently, there is technology that evaluates these driving skills. If the driver can reduce error of judgement, the chance of accident would decreased. Drivers get low accuracy scores, they should practice more. If the driver has slow response time, they should take a break in order to drive with common sense and reduce road accidents. In addition, the steering wheel skills are related to the experience of the driver. The driver should have experience before driving on the road in order to reduce road accidents. According to the Domino Theory of H.W. Heinrich, if the first domino (Social environment of background) falls over, the next domino would fall over as well. Thus, if you don’t want the fourth domino (Accident) to fall over, you should remove third domino (Unsafe acts or unsafe condition) to prevent injury and property damage. Thus, if the driver has developed these 3 skills (accuracy of response, quick reaction time and good control of the steering wheel) as mentioned, it would help to reduce the chance of accident. How responsive are you on emergencies