Thailand PM2.5 Crisis

May 7, 2019
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

Why is PM2.5 harmful in Thailand?

Bangkok’s hazy morning could be pleased to many people but this fog is actually a cluster of very small and dangerous dust particles that can easily enter and harm human’s body. The air quality of Bangkok has been getting worse since the second week of January. The pollution level (PM2.5) remains at hazardous level in many areas of Bangkok and the surrounding provinces. This year’s situation is worse than that in 2018. Experts conclude that the combustion from diesel engines, burning of biomass and industrial activities are the main causes of the situations from both inside country and neighboring countries. From the study, Bangkok’s PM2.5 haze usually occurs in drought season or cold season of Thailand due to the stagnant air movement. In the big picture, the haze problems also takes place in other ASEAN countries such as Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. This could be a failure of Asean Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (AATHP) to enforce its members to stop expansion of monoculture farming and rapid deforestation.

What is PM 2.5?

            PM2.5 dust is any particle that is smaller than 2.5 microns which is comparable to bacteria size. Human’s hair has an average size around 50 microns and PM2.5 dust is 20 times smaller than human’s hair. Thus, the particles can easily penetrate the nasal hair to the lungs which can increase the risk of lung cancer. PM2.5 is the main pollutants in many countries like China, USA and European countries as it can stay in the atmosphere for a long time and can travel for a long distance. The sources of PM2.5 are mainly from the diesel engine combustion, the burning of biomass, dust from combining of pollutant gases and the industrial activities.

Pollution from Industrial Dust
Pollution from Engine Combustion

Impacts of PM2.5 and StandardsImpacts of PM2.5 and Standards

National Air Quality and Global Guidelines for PM2.5 by WHO

Because of its tiny size, PM2.5 can easily enter human’s lungs and bloodstream which can obviously affect human’s health. The study shows that the PM2.5 can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer or even death. Children, elderly and pregnant women will be more risky to PM2.5 than adults. Long term exposure to PM2.5 might be an important risk factor of hypertension in adults and can even deteriorate the reproductive system. According to Thailand’s standard, the PM2.5 level should not exceed 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air, while the WHO’s standard is set at 25 micrograms per cubic meter of air.


The Pollution Control Department strictly orders the vehicles emitting black smoke off the roads and to prevent people from lighting a fire outdoors, and asks people to reduce their use of private vehicles. However, these actions may not be effective immediately.
The help from meteorological factors such as weather (temperature and wind speed) and precipitation could be the best option. The study has found that the high temperature weather was more helpful to diffusion of pollutants than the low temperature. The rainfall also affects the removal of particles. The average PM2.5 concentration decreased by 56.3% after the rainfall by the PM2.5 concentration remains after 1 hour of rainfall and will keep declining within the next 12 hours. Therefore, there is an attempt of rainmaking to settle the dust.
The simplest way people can protect themselves is to wear N95 mask when going outdoor which is more capable of filtering the PM2.5 than the normal mask. Since the outdoor PM2.5 pollution cannot be easily controlled, it is important to control the indoor air quality by using the air filter.

N95 mask

Applications for checking PM2.5

The air quality can be checked by the following applications and website.
-Air4thai (application)
-AirVisual (application)

The graph below indicates the changes in the mass density of PM2.5 at one of the monitoring station in center area of Bangkok from 1st January 2019 to 15th February 2019.

Changes in the mass density of PM2.5 (micrograms per cubic meter)


Fire at Centara (Central World)

April 12, 2019
Nareerat Moottatarn

From the investigations of the Forensics Department of the National Police Force, staffs of the Engineering Institute and staffs related to the incident, Mr. Pichaya Chantranuwat, the Director of the Engineering Institute of Thailand states that the origin of the fire is from the fire pump room on the B2 basement floor. The fire travelled from the underground floor B2 up to the 8th floor via the interconnecting duct between the B2 and 8th floor. The duct is horizontally installed and is made from fiberglass, which is not designed for high heat resistance. The heat spreading to the 8th floor’s duct caused it to collapse and obstruct the fire exit of the 8th floor which caused the smoke to be trapped and was not able to escape outside. The situation was worsened by large amount of combustibles which helped sustained and grow the fire.  

Due to the old age of the building, the outdated duct design is considered to be a weak point. On the other hand, newly constructed buildings would have the heat resistant ducts installed or fire dampers inside the duct in order to prevent the air from coming inside. Building inspections for old buildings will be restricted to original structural inspections, and no emphasis will be made on the matters previously mentioned. Mr. Pichaya also states that the laws and regulations for building fires exist, but are difficult to enforce.

From our experience of surveying numerous factories, we hypothesize that the underground B2 floor, which contains the wastewater treatment equipment and other utilities, had methane gas, hydrogen sulfide gas, and ammonia gas accumulated from the wastewater treatment process. These gases can be ignited and catch fire quickly from electric sparks of the blower machine, which was inside the room, according to the news. This could be the cause of the fire incident. Afterwards, the smoke and heat rose into the ventilation duct which if no inspections were regularly performed, debris and residues could be the fire’s medium and helped spread the fire. This lead to continuous fire inside the duct due to the duct’s inability to resist fire, finally causing the pipe to be damaged, collapsing to block the exits.

[caption id="attachment_2260" align="aligncenter" width="225"] Traffic Congestions in Bangkok[/caption]

Tropical Storm Pabuk to Hit Thailand

January 11, 2019
Nareerat Moottatarn


              A few days after a New Year’s festival celebration, Thailand’s Meteorological Department reported the incoming tropical storm to hit the Southern Thailand, named “Pabuk”. It was originated in the Southern South China Sea with the maximum wind speed of 65 km/hr or faster. Its name was given after the large fresh water fish in Mekong River by Laos as a member of the World Meteorological Organization Typhoon Committee. The storm is approaching the Gulf of Thailand from the south direction with the speed of 25 km/hr and expected to hit Southern Thailand between 3rd and 5th January. An expert revealed that its moving speed and wind speed are not that fast comparing to the well-known storms in the past, which will result in continuous heavy rainfall and very rough seas for several days. Due to the location, Thailand has been occasionally affected by serious storms. In the past 30 years, Thailand has encountered 2 destructive storms: “Typhoon Gay” and “Typhoon Linda”. Typhoon Linda hit The Gulf of Thailand in 2540 as a tropical storm with wind speed around 80 km/hr and moved across Thailand to the west side and dissolved in the Bay of Bengal. Typhoon Gay, Thailand’s most severe storm in the last 35 years, started from low pressure air and developed to depression, tropical storm and eventually typhoon just in a few hours. The storm landed at Chumphon on November 4th 1989 with the wind speed around 185 km/hr (Level 3 typhoon) and caused wide range of damage. More than 446 deaths were reported. Pabuk will not be as aggressive as Gay because of the lower wind speed but the damage is still expected to be intense. [caption id="attachment_2209" align="aligncenter" width="375"] Thailand storm Pabuk simulation (Friday 4th 2019 – 9:00AM)[/caption]

Effects and Countermeasures

              There will be heavy rainfall and very rough sea which will lead to floods in Pattani, Yala, Pattalung, Songkhla, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, Suratthani and Chumphon and the Andaman side from 3rd January and will be worst on 5th January. Nakhon Sri Thammarat and Suratthani are expected to receive most damage. Some damages have been reported; more than 20 electricity poles in Nakhon Sri Thammarat were collapsed and the electricity blackout was spread to many areas. Since the wind speed has raised to 85 km/hr which could damage constructions such as windows, doors and roofs. Tourists in famous islands such as Koh Tao, Koh Samui and Koh Phangan had to be evacuated. Several closures and cancellations has been reported as follows: Nakhon Sri Thammarat Airport, Moo Koh Similan and Moo Koh Surin National Parks, Raja Ferry Port, Seatran Ferry and Ang Thong National Park (updated January 4th 2019). On January 4th, one death has been reported near Pattani. Officials has announced a warning and civilians living in the affected areas or expected areas were evacuated, including workers who work at the oil rig in the middle of Gulf of Thailand, but some insisted to stay. However, the prediction of storm’s movement is still uncertain, the situation is still needed to be monitored day to day.  


              Regarding to forecast from Thailand’s Meteorological Department, Pabuk will move across the Southern Thailand to Andaman Sea from 4th-5th January. As a result, there will be downpour and heavy rain in many locations. The flash flood has to be aware. The waves in both Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea will be even more powerful. Read more flood news at Interrisk’s News Page. Copyright 2018 MS&AD InterRisk Research & Consulting, Inc. All Rights Reserved


No tag assigned

Rainy Season Brings Heavy Rainfall to Northern Thailand

June 13, 2018
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

Thai Flood Report: Forecast of Thailand’s Rainy Season 2018


As the rainy season has arrived last week, there have been a few flood situations; mostly caused by heavy rainfall but the situations were relieved in not long time. The rainfall in Northern area of the country caused water logged on the road and stream to the village such as in Chiang Mai and Lampang. The water storage levels in main dams are still low as well as the water levels in main rivers and canals.


For the rainfall amount forecast in 2018 rainy season, it is expected that the overall rainfall amount will be 5-10% less than normal value and also less than last year’s. By the beginning of the season (June), the rainfall amount will be close to normal value. Then, in the middle of season (July-August), the rainfall will also be close and less than normal value and will be less than normal value in the end of season (September-Middle October). The period with the most amount of rainfall will be in August and September which will also have high probability of tropical storms.

Expected rainfall amount in each region of Thailand

Area Expected rainfall amount in rainy season 2018 (mm)
May June July August September October
Northern 178 156 176 223 218 124
Northeastern 187 203 211 266 242 117
Central 172 145 156 181 257 187
Eastern 224 262 278 303 257 187
Sothern (Thai Gulf) 224 262 278 303 330 255
Sothern (Andaman) 310 312 337 399 424 367
Bangkok 248 157 175 219 334 292
Red cell: 5%-10% higher than normal value Green cell: close to normal value Blue cell: 5%-10% lower than normal value Remarks -Normal value refers to the average rain fall amount in the past 30 years The overall amount of rainfall in May and June will be close to the normal level except in the Northern and the Northeastern region because of an influence from the monsoon that moves pass the Northern and Northeastern regions.

Flood events

Flood news during the past weeks: May 16th 2018: Heavy rainfall in Bueng Sub-District of Sriracha District, Chonburi Province caused 50 cm high flood as an influence from the tropical storm. The area has never been flooded before. May 20th 2018: Windstorms hit several provinces causing falling trees and electric posts such as in Chaiyaphum, Phrae and Uttaradit. May 22nd 2018: The water from stream overflowed to the villages in Lampang Province after 5 hours of rainfall. May 24th 2018: Heavy rainfall in the night caused water logged in the village in Muang District of Chiang Mai Province. May 26th 2018: All-night rain in Pang Nga caused flood on Takua Pa-Phuket road which paralyzed the traffic. May 27th 2018: After 2 hours of raining, the flash flood from mountain attacked villages in Phayao Province. June 4th 2018: 30 cm high flood due to heavy rainfall in Khon Kaen and Udonthani Provinces. June 5th 2018: One-hour heavy rainfall in Phuket caused floods on many road surfaces and flowed to the residence areas. It also caused landslides in some areas. June 5th 2018: Heavy rain in Korat caused flood and flashflood to destroy road. This caused paralyzed traffic and car accident. June 9th 2018: Chao Phraya dam increased the drainage rate from 250 m3/s to 350 m3/s to due to the increasing amount of water from the northern region.

Dam Storage Level (Sirikit Dam, Bhumibol Dam)

The water storage level in both dams are close to 2011 but higher than last year. Since this period is the beginning of the rainy season, the water storage level will be starting to increase in the next coming months but may not so much as last year.

Dam Storage Level (Pasak Dam, Kwaenoi Dam)

Both dams are now having low water storage level, as the dry season has just ended. Comparing to 2011 and 2017, the water level is very low. The storage level is expected to be higher in the following months.

The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow

The water situations in main rivers and canals are at normal level. The current levels are a lot lower than the river bank.

The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow

As the amount of water from the upper Chao Phraya is still low, the amount of water in the lower Chao Phraya is also low, since there has been not much rainfall as the rainy season has just begun.


19 Ways Data Can Be Leaked

January 3, 2018
Tawan Punsang

Have you ever wondered how our confidential or personal information leaks from us? Or how they fall into the wrong hands? The answers differs from a simple methods to advanced ones, so firstly for someone who may not be involved in cyber security to understand overall pictures is to know what is data breach? And where do data flow? Data breach is an incident where information is stolen or taken from a system without the knowledge or authorization of the system’s owner which can cause a small company or a large organization to suffer great loss. Stolen data may involve sensitive, proprietary, or confidential information, such as credit card numbers, customer data or trade secrets. There are so many ways data can easily leak out of an organization. There are three buckets or containers where information “lives and flows”; in digital form, in hard copy (paper) and in the conversation. Information is constantly flowing between these containers, usually resting in more than one of them at any given moment without some type of map or landscape that lays them all out. Data leak is divided into 2 classes which are internal data leakage and leakage from external threats. In total, there are shown 19 ways below.

Instant Messaging (Peer to Peer)

  • Many organizations allow employees to use instant messaging from their workplace which include products such as Skype, Google talk and peer to peer (P2P) networks. These programs could act as file sharing networks that allow users to inadvertently share confidential documents to an external users.


  • Email also represents a route for a simple data leakage. Because traditional email clients, such as Microsoft Outlook, etc. are widespread within organizations. Internal users could even be tricked to email or inadvertently send confidential documents as an attachment to an unauthorized individual due to employee oversight or poor business process.

Web Mail

  • Web mail runs over HTTP/s which an organizations’ fire wall may allow it through uninspected. When the connection is initiated by internal IP user, an individual may leak their confidential data, either as an attachment or message body.

Web Logs / Wikis

  • Web logs and Wikipedia site are a collaborative website where everyone could write their thoughts, comments, opinions and edit on any particular subject. These site could be used as a way to release confidential information, simply entering the information on the blogs. However, these are perhaps a less likely medium to leak confidential information because they would most likely be able to be tracked.

Hiding in SSL

  • Another ways to leak sensitive data is through SSL connection. Users may try to obscure data by utilizing a public proxy service via an SSL connection. They enter the proxy service with a browser, type in the URL of the site and then their entire session is encrypted without any detection of firewall.

Malicious Web pages

  • Visiting either a compromised or malicious sites could present user’s computer a great risk of being infected with malware. A web page containing malicious code with an OS/browser. The malware could be in form of a Trojan, Key logger, etc. Users might download a key logger/backdoor, thus providing the attacker with full access to user’s computer.

Data theft by intruders

  • There have been numerous stories about the theft of credit card information or others electronic break-in to an organization by intruders. This particular event holds remarkable concern, because resumes contain a significant amount of information of individual, including their personal information or even details of third parties. Believable phishing attacks or social engineering could be used by a theft to obtain these sensitive data.


  • Malware can evade inbound gateway protection measures and desktop anti-virus then initiate outbound communications, sending out files which may contain sensitive data. Malware can be categorized as Virus, Worm, Trojan horse, Spyware, Key logger, etc. These allows a hacker to remotely access your computer, perform various operations such as capturing potentially sensitive information, corrupting files on target computer and so on.

SQL Injection

  • SQL injection is a code injection technique that can be used in a range of ways to cause serious problems. By using SQL injection, an attacker could bypass authentication, access, modify and delete data within a database. The initial action of the attack could be to enter a single quote within the input data in a POST element on a website. Following with trial and error by the attacker could eventually reveal table names, field names and other information. This will allow an attacker to construct SQL query within the POST element that yields sensitive data.


  1. Phishing is a form of fraud in which the attacker tries to learn information such as login credentials or account information by masquerading as a reputable entity or person in email. Typically a victim receives a message that appears to have been sent by a known person or organization. An attachment or links may install malware on user’s device or direct them to malicious website and cause them to lose sensitive information. Phishing is popular with cybercriminals, as it is far easier to trick someone into clicking a malicious link in a seemingly legitimate email than trying to break through a computer’s defenses.

Dumpster Diving

  1. Many organizations that do not take appropriate care with destruction of hard copy information have a risk of confidential data falling into dumpster diving. Instead of having the document destroyed securely, Individual may throw their confidential information into the rubbish which could be discovered by an attacker through this method.

Physical Theft

  1. Many organizations underestimate the importance of keeping their offices and their equipment physically secure. They often lack a clear policy describing what measures they should take to protect computers and backup storage devices from theft. As a result, Poor physical security at an organization’s file or poor security practice of individuals creates a possibility of physical theft. Physical theft of devices such as laptops, computer systems, back up tapes, and other media also post a risk for data leakage to organizations.

Removable Media / Storage

  1. Theft or loss of a data storage medium such as USB memory key, and external hard drives made up nearly 54 percent of all identity theft-related data leaks. Due to the size, USB keys are so easy to lose. Although some data when were copied to the key are legitimate, the risk of the key lost onto the third party still exists.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

  1. FTP represents another method for a user to leak their information. It is simply straightforward to install and configure a basic FTP server external to the organization. The shortcomings of FTP stem from both the design of the protocol and evolving business requirements. The individual then merely has to install a publicly available. FTP client and upload the file.

Security Classification Errors

  1. Security models are intended to provide a framework for organizations to avoid classified and / or sensitive information being sent to individuals (internally and externally) without the appropriate security clearance level. It is conceivable that an individual with Top Secret clearance may either intentionally or inadvertently send a Top Secret document to another individual with only “Classified” clearance.

Hard Copy

  1.  If an individual wishes to provide a competitor with sensitive material, and the victim organization has already implemented electronic countermeasures, it is still possible for the individual to print out the data and walk out of the office with it in their briefcase. Or, they simply place it in an envelope and mail it, postage happily paid by the victim organization.

Inadequate Folder and File Protection

  1.  If folders and files lack appropriate protection (via user/group privileges etc) then it becomes easy for a user to copy data from a network drive (for example) to their local system. The user could then copy that file to removable media, or send it out externally by methods discussed above.


  • A determined individual may choose to take digital photos (or non-digital for that matter) of their screens. A camera is not even needed nowadays. Cellular telephones today are likely to have a camera built in, perhaps with up to 2 mega pixels or more. The photo could then be sent by email or Mobile Messaging directly from the telephone.

Inadequate Database Security

  • Poor SQL programming can leave an organization exposed to SQL injection attacks, or allow inappropriate information to be retrieved in legitimate database queries. Additionally, organizations should not implement broad database privileges as this can lead to users accessing confidential information (either intentionally or inadvertently).

Excessive Rainfall Over Thailand

October 30, 2017
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

InterRisk Thai Flood Report


According to TMD, the amount of rainfall since January is about 1,700 mm which is above the average at 1,572 mm. Consequently, there have been flood situations in many parts of the country, especially in the riverside areas and provinces in the north and northeast areas. Currently, the water levels in the main dams are critical in many areas such as Pasak dam and Kwae Noi dam that the capacity is almost at their full capacity. In conclusion, the Chao Phraya dam and Pa Sak dam increase the drainage rate, causing the water level of lower Chaophraya river to increase and overflow in some areas of Nonthaburi, Pathumthani and Ayutthaya. Moreover, the inundated water in the retention areas almost reaches 95% of the maximum capacity. The situation needs to be monitored.

Government announcements

Since there has been large amount of rain above Chao Phyara dam, causing the drainage to be increased from 2,600 m3/sec to 2,700 m3/sec and would be at this rate for a week. The drained water from Chao Phraya dam would cause 20-25 higher water level in the under dam areas for a short period of time. Moreover, the Minister has ordered the RID to prepare for possibly incoming flood situations in the southern region. Thai Meteorological Department announced that the overall rain tended to reduce in the northern and northeastern region which was considered a good sign, especially at the Chao Phraya dam. Flood events: 20th Oct: Nakhon Sawan municipal urgently reinforce the flood protection dyke on the side of Chao Phraya river. 22th Oct: Chao Phraya river overflowed to the riverside villages in Pathumthani due to the coming water from Chao Phraya dam. 23th Oct: Chao Phraya dam increased water drainage to 2,700 m3/sec to help relieve flood situation in above-dam areas. 24th Oct: Heavy rain in Doi Inthanon caused flash flood in many districts of Chiang Mai. 24th Oct: 40-60cm increasing of Chao Phraya river level caused the water to overflow to Pak Kred, Nonthaburi. 24th Oct: Water overflowed to Sena District of Ayutthaya after “Jao Jed” flood gate had been damaged. 24th Oct: Chao Phraya river overflowed to Nonthaburi city near Bang Kwang prison. Situation: Nonthaburi Flood Increased the water level from Chaophraya dam has caused Nonthaburi province to become flooded. Some premises next to Chaophraya River has become flooded 30-40 cm and some street is now flooded and traffic is blocked. Currently estimated 100 houses are affected. Situation: High Tide has passed According to TMD water tide is now on the decreasing tide. The highest peak was on 8th Oct and gradually reduced. Water discharge rate of major river would be increased from now on. However, the overall water discharge from local premise would depend on the amount of water management and drainage capacity to the major water source. It is important to concern the water discharge rate out of the premise and make sure that the flood protection is fully functional. Water Level in Major Dam Increasing water from Pasak Dam On 25th October Pasak dam has announce to increase water release rate from 25 million m3 to 30 million m3 which intern will increase water level in Chaophraya River by 20-30 cm. In addition to amount of increasing Chaophraya Dam water flow. The premises near the river should be cautious about the situation. Inundated water in water retention area near maximum Water in water retention area (Ayutthaya, Suphanburi) has reached 95% or 1,300 million m3. This amount of water is under irrigation department management. However, Irrigation department plans to divert the inundated water to the sea. It would takes about 30-45 days to release the water to the normal level.

2017: High amount of Rainfall                              According to TMD the amount of rainfall in 2017 is more than average at 1,700 mm where the average country is 1572 mm. according to the reference the amount of yearly rainwater in 2011 is at 1,781mm The water is under irrigation department management which is diverted to canals and water retention areas (monkey cheek). In this regards, if the water management fails, the flood similar to 2011 could occurs due to the amount of rainfall. It is important to inspect and ensure that the flood protection and management is reliable and fully functional. The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow The amount of water from Upper Chaophraya has increased and spread to wider area but still under its capacity in most area. The critical area is in Phichit area where Yom and Nan river adjoins. In addition to Chainat area. However, the situation is same as last month. The amount of water increased largely came from Ping and Wang river. The amount of water at Chao Phraya river dam has increased from 2,600 m3/s to 2,700 m3/s. Premises near Chaophraya River should be aware of the situation. The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow The amount of water from Upper Chaophraya has contiously increased. Many area has been flooded in Singburi and Chaophraya. Water in many area is also at critical level. In case of heavy rainfall, the drainage from land to the major river could be reduced and resulted in inland flood. It is necessary to check the drainage capacity and the ability to drain water to major rivers.


Hurricane Warning

October 16, 2017
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

InterRisk Thai Flood Report


The water volume of main dams has been increasing due to the heavy rain in last week. Bhumibol and Sirikit dams can still receive more amount of water, while Pasak and Kwae Noi dams are almost at their full capacity. The lower Chao Phraya provinces are critical, especially in Ayutthaya, Angthong, Chainat and Pathumthani where some riverside areas are flooded which resulted from the increased water released from the upper Chao Phraya river through the Chao Phraya river dam. Rain will continue until next week all over the country which is influenced from coverage of low pressure air from China and monsoon.

Government announcements

Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation has coordinated with 34 riverside provinces in north, northeast and central regions to prepare for the incoming water situations. By monitoring, analyzing any risk from amount of rain water and water level. If the situation spreads out, there will be prepared rescue team with equipment and machines.

Flood events:

Flood incidents in the past week: 11th Oct: All night rain in Pa Yao caused flash flood in Mae Sai Sub-District with water level up to 50-70cm. 12th Oct: Chao Phraya river near Ang Thong Province overflowed the dike to damage the Pa Mok District. 14th Oct: Heavy rain during the night of 13th caused flood in many roads of Bangkok, including Wipawadee, Ratchadapisek, Petchburi, Ladprao and Petkasem. 14th Oct: Nine Chao Phraya riverside Districts of Ayutthaya were flooded. Moreover, there were 26 Districts in 8 Provinces (Lopburi, Kumpangpetch, Singburi, Angthong, Ayutthaya, Nakhon Sawan, Chainat and Tak) that were being affected by flood.

Situation: Ayutthaya Flood

Currently there is a flood in some area in Ayutthaya Province. In Bangnan and Sena district. However, these areas are frequently flood as report in last year report. The maximum depth is 1.5m. The amount is higher than last year 2,100 sq.m/s. According to the news the water level in the area can be cleared within 1 week. The amount of water release from Choaphraya dam is now over 2,500 sq.m/s since 10th October.

Situation: Hurricane warning

From 16th October typhoon “Khanun” has decreased its intensity and become depression. The depression is now moving toward “Hainan, China” and moving downward to Vietnam. According to the RID, it may not directly affect Thailand but may contribute to the rainfall in Thailand.

Situation: Bangkok Flood

Last 13th Oct high amount of rainfall occured in Bangkok, according to TMD the amount of rainfall is approximately 200mm within 6 hours. Resulted in inland flood due to the in ability to drain the water. The concentrate amount of rainfall is shown in the diagram below. The high amount of rainfall focus in the central Bangkok area. The flood depth is approximately 30-60 cm where the most depth is at Wiphawadi road. Flooded roads

Storage level Sirikit Dam

Storage level Bhumibol Dam

Storage level Pasak

Storage level Kwaenoi Dam

The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow

The amount of water from Upper Chaophraya has increased. The critical area is in Phichit area where Yom and Nan river adjoins. The amount of water increased largely came from Ping and Wang river. The amount of water at Chao Phraya river dam has increased and is near its capacity. Amount of water released is also increased.

The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow


How Antivirus Works ?

October 9, 2017
Tawan Punsang

Learn More About Antivirus

An antivirus is a software that prevents, detects and removes malicious software programs like computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, etc. that are harmful to the computer systems. If you’ve ever wondered how antivirus programs detect viruses, what they’re doing on your computer, and whether you need to perform regular system scans yourself. There are answers in this article but first, taking a look at what are the virus and malicious code might help you get a better picture on the further topics.

What are the virus and malicious code?

The malicious code refers to a broad category of programs that can cause damage or undesirable effects to computers or networks. Possible damage can include modifying, destroying or stealing sensitive data, gaining or allowing unauthorized access to a system and executing functions that a user never intended. So computer viruses are the most common form of malicious code. A virus is a program that infects a computer by attaching itself to another program and propagating itself when that program is executed. It should be noted that some malicious programs are able to exhibit the behaviors of more than one type of malicious code. For example, certain programs may be both a virus and a Trojan horse at the same time. Thus there are plenty of antiviruses are available in the market which uses different approaches to detect and remove viruses. Generally, these approaches can be distinguished into three categories 1) Signature-based detection 2) Heuristic-based detection and 3) Behavioral-based detection

Signature based detection

In the first approach, an antivirus has a library of signatures of all popular viruses as a virus definition. The definition files contain signatures for viruses and other malware that have been encountered in the wild. During the scanning process, it compares the content of all computer programs with the library of viruses. If there is such a program found that matches with a signature that is defined as a virus, an alert is made to the user about this program and the antivirus program stops the file from running, putting it into “quarantine.”

Heuristic-based detection

This type of detection is most commonly used in combination with signature-based detection. Heuristic technology is deployed in most of the antivirus programs. This helps the antivirus software to detect new or a variant or an altered version of the malware, even in the absence of the latest virus definitions. Antivirus programs use heuristics, by running susceptible programs or applications with a suspicious code on it, within a runtime virtual environment. This keeps the vulnerable code from infecting the real world environment.

Behavioral-based detection

This type of detection is used in Intrusion Detection mechanism. This concentrates more in detecting the characteristics of the malware during execution. This mechanism detects malware only while the malware performs malware actions. So different antivirus programs have different detection rates, which both virus definitions and heuristics are involved in. Some antivirus companies may have more effective heuristics and release more virus definitions than their competitors, resulting in a higher detection rate.

Reasons to run Antivirus

Antivirus software scan is a very important task to undertake for the safety of your computer. Because viruses can damage the data on your computer and can even leave openings for hackers. Depending on the situation, you may face identity theft, problems with the device, lost data or even a computer crash. Scanning your computer for viruses should be a regular task to undertake since it gives you a chance to remove and reduce a risk from malware that may hinder the activities of your system.

When and how often should you scan for viruses?

Normally, your security software already gives real-time protection against threats as they emerge, but regular system scans are vital. Antivirus programs often offer two types of scan: a ‘quick’ scan and a ‘deep’ or ‘full’ scan. Although there is no specific set amount time between scans, it is recommended to do a manual ‘quick’ scan whenever you suspect any traces of viruses in your system and/or any time that your computer suddenly slows down, starts creating problems or is simply not working as effectively as it did previously. You can also further set your software to do a full scan once a week using appropriate antivirus software that suits your preferences and goals. You can usually customize the schedule, although scanning your entire PC every day is probably too much but leaving more than a week between scans is not safe.

Sonca Storm in Thailand

August 3, 2017
Sutiwat Prutthiprasert

InterRisk Thai Flood Report 2017: Sonca Storm in Thailand


In the past week, the overall country was affected by the Sonca storm, especially in the northeast and north regions. There were floods in several provinces such as Sakolnakorn, Kalasin, Chaiyaphum, Phrae, and Phayao and the rain seems to be continued until next week. The water level of the major dams has increased but still much less than the full capacity. The water level of the Yom river is high in Phrae, Pichit and Lampang. While for the Chao Phraya river, the water level is high in Ayutthaya and Angthong.

RID News:

RID revealed that the influence of “Sonca” storm caused heavy rain in several areas especially in the northeast region. The water level in Chee and Mool river has been increasing. For the situation in Sakolnakorn, there is still flood water in several areas. RID has supported 10 water pumping machines and 26 water propulsions to push flood water back to the river. While in Kalasin, the JMC committee of Lampao dam had decided to increase the drainage rate since 30th July from 15 to 20 million m3 which might cause flood in 5 districts, the governor had ordered for preparation. Moreover, the RID also had flood prevention and relief plan in Bang Saphan Noi which is the flood affected area by dredging up Bang Saphan canal for 4.5km and planning to build water draining gate in Bang Saphan canal which will be finished in the next 2 years.


From 3rd-6th August, the overall country will have increasing rainfall and will be heavy in the Eastern region and west side of the South due to the southwest monsoon. There will be 2-3 meters waves in Andaman sea and the upper Thai Gulf sea.

Flood events

Flood incidents in the past week: 24th July: Continuous rainfall caused flash flood to overflow the river inundating the villages in Chiang Rai. 25th July: Continuous rainfall caused flash flood in Denchai District, Phrae Province. 26th July: Heavy rainfall in Phayao caused the water level in “Kwan Phayao” to reach its full capacity. 26th July: Several hours of raining caused flood in the Muang District of Kalasin, small cars are struggle to pass. 27th July: Flash flood destroyed roads in Khon Kaen. Landslide blocked the train tunnel in Chaiyaphum 27th July: High amount of rainfall in overall areas of Pitsanulok caused flood in many residential areas. 27th July: Broken flood wall caused the flood water to flow out into Sukhothai. 28th July: Heavy continuous rainfall caused flash flood to 8 provinces in Ranong. 28th July: Flooding in 8 Districts of Nakhon Rachasrima, 3 are severe. 28th July: The overflowed water from Huay Siton flowed into 10 residential areas, most severe in past 40 years. 29th July: Sakolnakorn in crisis. Flash flood hit the city, the runway had to be shut down. 29th July: The overflowed from Lam Kun Chu dam flowed into Bamnej Narong District caused flood. 30th July: The overflow of Chao Phraya river caused flooding in 6 Districts of Ayutthaya. 30th July: Yom river near Nakhon Sawan overflowed to the low level land. 31st July: Huay Sai Khamin reservoir in Sakolnakorn was broken by the flood water. Flood in the north and north east of Thailand by tropical storm Sonca during 21-25 July 2017

Chiang Rai

100 houses flooded 480,000sq.m. of damaged crop fields

Sri Saket

32,000,000sq.m. of damaged crop fields


420 houses flooded 11,200,000sq.m. of damaged crop fields

Nakhon Panom

3,200,000sq.m. of damaged crop fields

Storage Level Sirikit Dam

Storage Level Bhumibol Dam

Amount of water stored is increased in both Major dam, especially Sirikit dam where the water increased by 10% however, the amount of water stored is still much lower than 2011 and from the dam capacity.

Storage Level Pasak Dam

Storage Level Kwae Noi Dam

Amount of water in has increased since last 2 weeks especially at Kwaenoi dam where the amount of water is much more than 2011 but still much below the dam capacity. Still, the amount of water in this dam alone would not determine the possibility of flood. However, the situation shall be monitored.

The Upper Chao Phraya River Flow

The amount of water from Upper Chaophraya has increased to almost double from last 2 weeks. Increased amout of water in the river in many region in the upper Chao Phraya River especially Wang, Yom and Nan river. At Phichit the amount of water is high but not yet flooded.

The Lower Chao Phraya River Flow

Amount of water in Chaopraya River increased especially in Ayutthaya and Angthong area due to increase amount of water release from Pasak dam. Amount of water from Upper Chao Phraya River has also increased. However, Irrigation department has diverted water to canal, therefore the amount of water at Chao Phraya Dam has slightly decreased due to the management.


How responsive are you on emergencies?

June 28, 2017
Tanaporn Longwech

The reaction time for car accidents depends on each person’s ability and training. The ability of emergency response is related to the decision time. Furthermore, the decision should consider disadvantages like the amount of people injured and property damage. Research shows that the time of low awareness and concentration decreases the ability to respond, increasing the risk of accident. The necessary driving skills are accuracy of response, quick reaction time and good control of the steering wheel. Presently, there is technology that evaluates these driving skills. If the driver can reduce error of judgement, the chance of accident would decreased. Drivers get low accuracy scores, they should practice more. If the driver has slow response time, they should take a break in order to drive with common sense and reduce road accidents. In addition, the steering wheel skills are related to the experience of the driver. The driver should have experience before driving on the road in order to reduce road accidents. According to the Domino Theory of H.W. Heinrich, if the first domino (Social environment of background) falls over, the next domino would fall over as well. Thus, if you don’t want the fourth domino (Accident) to fall over, you should remove third domino (Unsafe acts or unsafe condition) to prevent injury and property damage. Thus, if the driver has developed these 3 skills (accuracy of response, quick reaction time and good control of the steering wheel) as mentioned, it would help to reduce the chance of accident. How responsive are you on emergencies