|North: Mae Hong Son, Lamphun, Lampang, Nan, Phrae, Uttaradit, Sukhothai, Tak, Kamphaeng Phet, Phitsanulok, Phichit, Phetchabun||North: Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang, Phrae, Phayao, Nan, Uttaradit, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, Tak, Kamphaeng Phet, Phichit, Phetchabun||North: Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Lampang, Tak, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet|
|Northeast: Loei, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Bueng Kan, Udon Thani, Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, Mahasarakham, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Roi Et, Yasothon, Amnat Charoen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Ubon Ratchathani||Northeast: Loei, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Bueng Kan, Udon Thani, Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, Mahasarakham, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Roi Et, Yasothon, Amnat Charoen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Ubon Ratchathani||Northeast: Nil|
|Central: Ratchaburi, Kanchanaburi, Saraburi, Lop Buri, Nakhon Sawan, Uthai Thani.||Central: Kanchanaburi, Uthai Thani, Chainat, Nakhon Sawan, Lop Buri, Saraburi, Bangkok||Central: Ratchaburi, Kanchanaburi, Uthai Thani, Suphanburi, Chainat|
|East: Nakhon Nayok, Prachinburi, Sa Kaeo, Chachoengsao, Chonburi, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat.||East: Nakhon Nayok, Prachin Buri, Sa Kaeo, Chachoengsao, Chon Buri, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat||East: Chon Buri, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat|
|South: Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Surat Thani, Ranong, Phang Nga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Satun||South: Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Satun||South: Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi|
– Eliminate poverty within 2070. At present, the income lower than $1.90 per day is used as an indicator. – Equal access to economic resources, including basic need and land ownership – Build immunity to natural disaster, economic, and political crisis. – By creating warranty of significant resource assemble from different sources – By creating optimal scope of country, regional and international policies, based on a pro-poor strategy – Eliminate hunger and access to food safety and nutrition within 2070. – Eliminate all kinds of Malnutrition – Increase in agricultural products and in income of small food producers to be twice, including equal access to land property, resources, import factors, knowledge, financial management and value-adding opportunity. – By investing in rural and agricultural research and development – By preventing trade barrier in agricultural trade world – By allow access to food market information and eliminating food price fluctuation
– Reduce maternal mortality ratio worldwide to be less than 70 per 100,000 within 2070. – Eliminate infant mortality rate (IMR) to 12 per 1,000 and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) to 25 per 1,000 within 2070. – Eliminate AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria and neglected tropical diseases. – Reduce one-third of untimely death from NCDs by supporting good metal health and well-being within 2070. – Promote prevention of using drugs and alcohol. – Reduce road accident death. – Access to reproductive health information – Fulfill the universal health care coverage. – Reduce death and sickness from dangerous chemicals and pollution – By proceeding under the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control – By funding vaccines and medicine R&D – By investing more on healthcare and developing medical staff – By increasing potential in healthcare warning and risk management
– Free quality basic education (elementary/secondary) – Sufficient access to quality elementary education – Access to affordable and quality basic techniques, vocational and undergraduate study. – Increase skilled youths and adults for employment. – Eliminate gender inequality in education and ensure that fragile group: disabled, tribes and children have equal access to education. – Assure that high proportion of youths and adults, both male and female are literate. – Assure that all students are well-educated and trained with skills for sustainable development. – By improving educational devices to suit all groups of people – By expanding scholarship worldwide and IT and science vocational training – By increasing number of quality teachers
– Eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and girls around the world. – Eliminate all forms of violence to women and girls in public, including human trafficking and sexual violence. – Eliminate all harmful practices such as forced and early marriage. – Acknowledge and value unpaid care and domestic work and promote of shared responsibilities within the household and the family. -Assure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership in all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life. – Assure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences. – By reform to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws – By enhancing the use of information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women – By applying and strengthening suitable policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels
– Succeed in clean water access for everyone. – Succeed in adequate sanitation and terminate outdoor excretion. – Improve water quality by reducing pollution, stop littering, reduce non-treated water to half and increase the reuse of water. – Improve water using efficiency to relief water shortage. – Improve holistic water management. – Protect and restore water ecosystem. – By expanding international cooperation to increase capability for developing country regarding water and sanitation – By promoting and strengthening in community involvement in water management – Ensure the access to new affordable and reliable energy services. – Increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. – Improve energy utilization efficiency. – By enhancing international cooperation to facilitate the access to R&D of clean energy and renewable energy, including clean fossil energy and promoting investment in clean energy infrastructure and technology – By expanding infrastructure and developing technology to deliver the modern and sustainable energy services – Increase individual’s economic growth, especially increase the GDP of low-developing countries at least 7% per year. – Succeed in increasing productivity and economic values through technology and innovation. – Promote the policies that support productivity, employment, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and growth of SMEs. – Improve resources utilization and persevere to disconnect economic growth from environmental impairment. – Succeed in maximum employment and productivity with equality for all groups of people, including youths and disabled. – Reduce proportion of unemployed, uneducated and untrained youths. – Immediately and efficiently eliminate forced labor, slave labor, child labor and human trafficking. – Protect labor rights and promote safe working environment for all labors, including alien labors. – Create sustainable tourism policy to support employment, culture and local products. – Strengthen access to financial institutions and financial services. – By increasing Aid for Trade for developing countries – By following International Labor Organization (ILO) for child employment
– Develop quality, reliable sustainable infrastructure that is affordable and equal. – Promote inclusive and sustainable industry development. – Increase access to financial services for SMEs. – Enhance industrial infrastructure for sustainable and efficient resource utilization. – Increase science and innovation research – By promoting infrastructure in developing countries – By promoting technology and innovation development in developing countries. – By increasing access to information and internet References *1: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_Development_Goals *2: https://sdgmove.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/sdg-e0b881e0b8b1e0b89a-e0b881e0b8b2e0b8a3e0b89ee0b8b1e0b892e0b899e0b8b2e0b88ae0b8b8e0b8a1e0b88ae0b899e0b897e0b989e0b8ade0b887e0b896.pdf *3: http://e-plan.dla.go.th/activityImage/422.pdf
In the following chapters, we will talk about all 17 goals in detail.
Bangkok’s hazy morning could be pleased to many people but this fog is actually a cluster of very small and dangerous dust particles that can easily enter and harm human’s body. The air quality of Bangkok has been getting worse since the second week of January. The pollution level (PM2.5) remains at hazardous level in many areas of Bangkok and the surrounding provinces. This year’s situation is worse than that in 2018. Experts conclude that the combustion from diesel engines, burning of biomass and industrial activities are the main causes of the situations from both inside country and neighboring countries. From the study, Bangkok’s PM2.5 haze usually occurs in drought season or cold season of Thailand due to the stagnant air movement. In the big picture, the haze problems also takes place in other ASEAN countries such as Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. This could be a failure of Asean Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (AATHP) to enforce its members to stop expansion of monoculture farming and rapid deforestation.
What is PM 2.5?
PM2.5 dust is any particle that is smaller than 2.5 microns which is comparable to bacteria size. Human’s hair has an average size around 50 microns and PM2.5 dust is 20 times smaller than human’s hair. Thus, the particles can easily penetrate the nasal hair to the lungs which can increase the risk of lung cancer. PM2.5 is the main pollutants in many countries like China, USA and European countries as it can stay in the atmosphere for a long time and can travel for a long distance. The sources of PM2.5 are mainly from the diesel engine combustion, the burning of biomass, dust from combining of pollutant gases and the industrial activities.
Impacts of PM2.5 and StandardsImpacts of PM2.5 and Standards
Because of its tiny size, PM2.5 can easily enter human’s lungs and bloodstream which can obviously affect human’s health. The study shows that the PM2.5 can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer or even death. Children, elderly and pregnant women will be more risky to PM2.5 than adults. Long term exposure to PM2.5 might be an important risk factor of hypertension in adults and can even deteriorate the reproductive system. According to Thailand’s standard, the PM2.5 level should not exceed 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air, while the WHO’s standard is set at 25 micrograms per cubic meter of air.
The Pollution Control Department strictly orders the vehicles emitting black smoke off the roads and to prevent people from lighting a fire outdoors, and asks people to reduce their use of private vehicles. However, these actions may not be effective immediately.
The help from meteorological factors such as weather (temperature and wind speed) and precipitation could be the best option. The study has found that the high temperature weather was more helpful to diffusion of pollutants than the low temperature. The rainfall also affects the removal of particles. The average PM2.5 concentration decreased by 56.3% after the rainfall by the PM2.5 concentration remains after 1 hour of rainfall and will keep declining within the next 12 hours. Therefore, there is an attempt of rainmaking to settle the dust.
The simplest way people can protect themselves is to wear N95 mask when going outdoor which is more capable of filtering the PM2.5 than the normal mask. Since the outdoor PM2.5 pollution cannot be easily controlled, it is important to control the indoor air quality by using the air filter.
Applications for checking PM2.5
The air quality can be checked by the following applications and website.
The graph below indicates the changes in the mass density of PM2.5 at one of the monitoring station in center area of Bangkok from 1st January 2019 to 15th February 2019.
https://www.beartai.com/article/tech-article/303260 https://thaipublica.org/2019/01/air-pollution-pm10-pm2-5/ https://www.bangkokpost.com/news/general/1610854/bangkok-air-pollution-remains-at-hazardous-levels http://www.nationmultimedia.com/detail/national/30343974?fbclid=IwAR3kN-1X0MXD2guaftMiNAWu9RuM83uH6d0p2LeI4NF1oApFBpv1ff2-FCg https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876983/ https://aqicn.org/city/thailand/bangkok/chulalongkorn-hospital/ http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/content/air-pollution-measures-asia-and-pacific
From the investigations of the Forensics Department of the National Police Force, staffs of the Engineering Institute and staffs related to the incident, Mr. Pichaya Chantranuwat, the Director of the Engineering Institute of Thailand states that the origin of the fire is from the fire pump room on the B2 basement floor. The fire travelled from the underground floor B2 up to the 8th floor via the interconnecting duct between the B2 and 8th floor. The duct is horizontally installed and is made from fiberglass, which is not designed for high heat resistance. The heat spreading to the 8th floor’s duct caused it to collapse and obstruct the fire exit of the 8th floor which caused the smoke to be trapped and was not able to escape outside. The situation was worsened by large amount of combustibles which helped sustained and grow the fire.
Due to the old age of the building, the outdated duct design is considered to be a weak point. On the other hand, newly constructed buildings would have the heat resistant ducts installed or fire dampers inside the duct in order to prevent the air from coming inside. Building inspections for old buildings will be restricted to original structural inspections, and no emphasis will be made on the matters previously mentioned. Mr. Pichaya also states that the laws and regulations for building fires exist, but are difficult to enforce.
From our experience of surveying numerous factories, we hypothesize that the underground B2 floor, which contains the wastewater treatment equipment and other utilities, had methane gas, hydrogen sulfide gas, and ammonia gas accumulated from the wastewater treatment process. These gases can be ignited and catch fire quickly from electric sparks of the blower machine, which was inside the room, according to the news. This could be the cause of the fire incident. Afterwards, the smoke and heat rose into the ventilation duct which if no inspections were regularly performed, debris and residues could be the fire’s medium and helped spread the fire. This lead to continuous fire inside the duct due to the duct’s inability to resist fire, finally causing the pipe to be damaged, collapsing to block the exits.
[caption id="attachment_2260" align="aligncenter" width="225"] Traffic Congestions in Bangkok[/caption]
|Area||Expected rainfall amount in rainy season 2018 (mm)|
|Sothern (Thai Gulf)||224||262||278||303||330||255|
|Flood news during the past weeks: May 16th 2018: Heavy rainfall in Bueng Sub-District of Sriracha District, Chonburi Province caused 50 cm high flood as an influence from the tropical storm. The area has never been flooded before. May 20th 2018: Windstorms hit several provinces causing falling trees and electric posts such as in Chaiyaphum, Phrae and Uttaradit. May 22nd 2018: The water from stream overflowed to the villages in Lampang Province after 5 hours of rainfall. May 24th 2018: Heavy rainfall in the night caused water logged in the village in Muang District of Chiang Mai Province. May 26th 2018: All-night rain in Pang Nga caused flood on Takua Pa-Phuket road which paralyzed the traffic. May 27th 2018: After 2 hours of raining, the flash flood from mountain attacked villages in Phayao Province. June 4th 2018: 30 cm high flood due to heavy rainfall in Khon Kaen and Udonthani Provinces. June 5th 2018: One-hour heavy rainfall in Phuket caused floods on many road surfaces and flowed to the residence areas. It also caused landslides in some areas. June 5th 2018: Heavy rain in Korat caused flood and flashflood to destroy road. This caused paralyzed traffic and car accident. June 9th 2018: Chao Phraya dam increased the drainage rate from 250 m3/s to 350 m3/s to due to the increasing amount of water from the northern region.|
Have you ever wondered how our confidential or personal information leaks from us? Or how they fall into the wrong hands? The answers differs from a simple methods to advanced ones, so firstly for someone who may not be involved in cyber security to understand overall pictures is to know what is data breach? And where do data flow? Data breach is an incident where information is stolen or taken from a system without the knowledge or authorization of the system’s owner which can cause a small company or a large organization to suffer great loss. Stolen data may involve sensitive, proprietary, or confidential information, such as credit card numbers, customer data or trade secrets. There are so many ways data can easily leak out of an organization. There are three buckets or containers where information “lives and flows”; in digital form, in hard copy (paper) and in the conversation. Information is constantly flowing between these containers, usually resting in more than one of them at any given moment without some type of map or landscape that lays them all out. Data leak is divided into 2 classes which are internal data leakage and leakage from external threats. In total, there are shown 19 ways below.